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Table 2

Interaction between FTO SNP rs9939609 and dietary intake on BMI in a fixed-effects meta-analysis of 16,097 children and adolescents

Association between FTO variant and BMI
Interaction effect
β (95% CI)PI2β (95% CI)PI2
Total energy (kcal/day)    −0.03 (−0.07, 0.02) 0.20 0% 
 Low-intake group 0.08 (0.05, 0.12) 2.9 × 10−7 25%    
 High-intake group 0.05 (0.02, 0.08) 8.0 × 10−4 25%    
Protein (% of total energy intake)    0.08 (0.03, 0.12) 7.2 × 10−4 0% 
 Low-intake group 0.04 (0.01, 0.07) 0.02 0%    
 High-intake group 0.10 (0.07, 0.13) 8.2 × 10−10 34%    
Carbohydrate (% of total energy intake)    0.00 (−0.04, 0.04) 0.98 10% 
 Low-intake group 0.08 (0.05, 0.11) 1.6 × 10−6 20%    
 High-intake group 0.07 (0.04, 0.10) 9.9 × 10−6 26%    
Fat (% of total energy intake)    0.00 (−0.05, 0.05) 0.89 0% 
 Low-intake group 0.08 (0.05, 0.11) 6.7 × 10−7 24%    
 High-intake group 0.07 (0.03, 0.10) 4.1 × 10−5 34%    
Association between FTO variant and BMI
Interaction effect
β (95% CI)PI2β (95% CI)PI2
Total energy (kcal/day)    −0.03 (−0.07, 0.02) 0.20 0% 
 Low-intake group 0.08 (0.05, 0.12) 2.9 × 10−7 25%    
 High-intake group 0.05 (0.02, 0.08) 8.0 × 10−4 25%    
Protein (% of total energy intake)    0.08 (0.03, 0.12) 7.2 × 10−4 0% 
 Low-intake group 0.04 (0.01, 0.07) 0.02 0%    
 High-intake group 0.10 (0.07, 0.13) 8.2 × 10−10 34%    
Carbohydrate (% of total energy intake)    0.00 (−0.04, 0.04) 0.98 10% 
 Low-intake group 0.08 (0.05, 0.11) 1.6 × 10−6 20%    
 High-intake group 0.07 (0.04, 0.10) 9.9 × 10−6 26%    
Fat (% of total energy intake)    0.00 (−0.05, 0.05) 0.89 0% 
 Low-intake group 0.08 (0.05, 0.11) 6.7 × 10−7 24%    
 High-intake group 0.07 (0.03, 0.10) 4.1 × 10−5 34%    

Data are β-coefficients (95% CI) per minor allele of FTO rs9939609 or a proxy (r2 = 1) for BMI (z score), adjusted for age, pubertal status (if available), physical activity (if available), region (if available), and eigenvectors (GWAS data only). Analyses from individual studies were conducted separately and then combined by meta-analysis of 16,097 children and adolescents (15,352 whites, 478 African Americans, and 267 Asians). I2 values are also given. High- and low-intake groups were defined by medians of each dietary intake in each study. Medians of total energy intake ranged from 1,160 to 2,422 kcal/day, medians of protein intake ranged from 12.9% to 16.8%, medians of carbohydrate intake ranged from 44.2% to 59.0%, and medians of fat intake ranged from 28.0% to 41.0% across studies.

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