Skip to Main Content
Table 3—

Risk of having diagnosed or undiagnosed diabetes (according to 1985 WHO criteria) compared with no diabetes

n (%)Odds ratio (95% CI) of having diagnosed type 2 diabetes*Odds ratio (95% CI) of having undiagnosed type 2 diabetes*NNTS
Socioeconomic     
 Education (years)     
  0–11 711 (24.1) 1.0 1.0 9.6 
  12–14 1,000 (33.9) 0.9 (0.7–1.2) 1.1 (0.7–1.5) 9.6 
  ≥15 1,232 (41.8) 0.7 (0.5–0.9) 0.8 (0.5–1.1) 12.4 
  P trend = 0.01 P trend = 0.08  
 Annual family Income ($)     
  <10,000 347 (11.8) 1.0 1.0 11.4 
  10,000–25,000 1,008 (34.2) 0.7 (0.5–1.0) 1.1 (0.7–1.8) 10.3 
  25,000–50,000 779 (26.4) 0.7 (0.5–0.9) 1.1 (0.6–1.9) 10.3 
  >50,000 406 (13.8) 0.5 (0.3–0.7) 1.0 (0.6–1.9) 10.4 
  P trend = 0.002 P trend = 0.99  
Health behavior     
 Smoking     
  Never 1,294 (43.9) 1.0 1.0 11.7 
  Ever smoked 1,358 (46.0) 1.1 (0.9–1.4) 1.2 (0.9–1.6) 9.2 
  Currently smoking 293 (9.9) 0.7 (0.5–1.1) 0.7 (0.4–1.2) 14.7 
 Alcohol use in past 12 months     
  Never 1,482 (50.2) 1.0 1.0 11.3 
  Occasional 612 (20.7) 0.5 (0.4–0.7) 1.1 (0.8–1.6) 10.2 
  1–7 drinks/week 632 (21.4) 0.4 (0.3–0.5) 1.0 (0.7–1.5) 10.7 
  ≥8 drinks/week 213 (7.2) 0.2 (0.1–0.4) 1.3 (0.8–2.1) 8.4 
  P trend < 0.001 P trend = 0.46  
Health service use     
 Doctor to usually go to     
  No 167 (5.7) 1.0 1.0 8.1 
  Yes 2,775 (94.1) 7.3 (3.0–18.0) 0.7 (0.5–1.2) 10.8 
 Health insurance plan in addition to Medicare     
  No 560 (19.0) 1.0 1.0 9.6 
  Yes 2,370 (80.3) 1.0 (0.8–1.3) 0.9 (0.6–1.3) 10.9 
 Hospitalization last year     
  No 2,505 (84.9) 1.0 1.0 10.9 
  Yes 439 (14.9) 1.5 (1.1–1.9) 1.2 (0.8–1.7) 9.2 
Physical health conditions     
 History of cancer     
  No 2,381 (80.7) 1.0 1.0 10.9 
  Yes 562 (19.1) 0.9 (0.7–1.2) 1.2 (0.8–1.6) 9.4 
 History of hypertension     
  No 1,419 (48.1) 1.0 1.0 13.4 
  Yes 1,508 (51.1) 2.2 (1.8–2.8) 1.7 (1.3–2.2) 8.7§ 
 History of cardiovascular disease/procedures     
  No 2,023 (68.6) 1.0 1.0 11.4 
  Yes 927 (31.4) 1.5 (1.2–1.8) 1.2 (0.9–1.7) 9.0 
 BMI (kg/m2    
  <24.1 734 (24.9) 1.0 1.0 15.6 
  24.1–26.8 738 (25.0) 1.5 (1.0–2.0) 1.0 (0.7–1.6) 14.6 
  26.9–30.0 734 (24.9) 2.0 (1.4–2.8) 1.7 (1.1–2.6) 9.3 
  ≥30.1 744 (25.2) 3.2 (2.3–4.3) 2.6 (1.7–3.8) 6.9 
  P trend < 0.001 P trend < 0.001  
 Waist circumference (cm)     
  <91.8 736 (24.9) 1.0 1.0 17.3 
  91.8–99.3 743 (25.2) 1.8 (1.3–2.5) 1.3 (0.8–2.0) 13.4 
  99.4–107.1 731 (24.8) 2.4 (2.7–3.3) 1.9 (1.2–2.9) 9.2 
  ≥107.2 734 (24.9) 3.8 (2.8–5.2) 2.7 (1.8–4.1) 6.8 
  P trend < 0.001 P trend < 0.001  
n (%)Odds ratio (95% CI) of having diagnosed type 2 diabetes*Odds ratio (95% CI) of having undiagnosed type 2 diabetes*NNTS
Socioeconomic     
 Education (years)     
  0–11 711 (24.1) 1.0 1.0 9.6 
  12–14 1,000 (33.9) 0.9 (0.7–1.2) 1.1 (0.7–1.5) 9.6 
  ≥15 1,232 (41.8) 0.7 (0.5–0.9) 0.8 (0.5–1.1) 12.4 
  P trend = 0.01 P trend = 0.08  
 Annual family Income ($)     
  <10,000 347 (11.8) 1.0 1.0 11.4 
  10,000–25,000 1,008 (34.2) 0.7 (0.5–1.0) 1.1 (0.7–1.8) 10.3 
  25,000–50,000 779 (26.4) 0.7 (0.5–0.9) 1.1 (0.6–1.9) 10.3 
  >50,000 406 (13.8) 0.5 (0.3–0.7) 1.0 (0.6–1.9) 10.4 
  P trend = 0.002 P trend = 0.99  
Health behavior     
 Smoking     
  Never 1,294 (43.9) 1.0 1.0 11.7 
  Ever smoked 1,358 (46.0) 1.1 (0.9–1.4) 1.2 (0.9–1.6) 9.2 
  Currently smoking 293 (9.9) 0.7 (0.5–1.1) 0.7 (0.4–1.2) 14.7 
 Alcohol use in past 12 months     
  Never 1,482 (50.2) 1.0 1.0 11.3 
  Occasional 612 (20.7) 0.5 (0.4–0.7) 1.1 (0.8–1.6) 10.2 
  1–7 drinks/week 632 (21.4) 0.4 (0.3–0.5) 1.0 (0.7–1.5) 10.7 
  ≥8 drinks/week 213 (7.2) 0.2 (0.1–0.4) 1.3 (0.8–2.1) 8.4 
  P trend < 0.001 P trend = 0.46  
Health service use     
 Doctor to usually go to     
  No 167 (5.7) 1.0 1.0 8.1 
  Yes 2,775 (94.1) 7.3 (3.0–18.0) 0.7 (0.5–1.2) 10.8 
 Health insurance plan in addition to Medicare     
  No 560 (19.0) 1.0 1.0 9.6 
  Yes 2,370 (80.3) 1.0 (0.8–1.3) 0.9 (0.6–1.3) 10.9 
 Hospitalization last year     
  No 2,505 (84.9) 1.0 1.0 10.9 
  Yes 439 (14.9) 1.5 (1.1–1.9) 1.2 (0.8–1.7) 9.2 
Physical health conditions     
 History of cancer     
  No 2,381 (80.7) 1.0 1.0 10.9 
  Yes 562 (19.1) 0.9 (0.7–1.2) 1.2 (0.8–1.6) 9.4 
 History of hypertension     
  No 1,419 (48.1) 1.0 1.0 13.4 
  Yes 1,508 (51.1) 2.2 (1.8–2.8) 1.7 (1.3–2.2) 8.7§ 
 History of cardiovascular disease/procedures     
  No 2,023 (68.6) 1.0 1.0 11.4 
  Yes 927 (31.4) 1.5 (1.2–1.8) 1.2 (0.9–1.7) 9.0 
 BMI (kg/m2    
  <24.1 734 (24.9) 1.0 1.0 15.6 
  24.1–26.8 738 (25.0) 1.5 (1.0–2.0) 1.0 (0.7–1.6) 14.6 
  26.9–30.0 734 (24.9) 2.0 (1.4–2.8) 1.7 (1.1–2.6) 9.3 
  ≥30.1 744 (25.2) 3.2 (2.3–4.3) 2.6 (1.7–3.8) 6.9 
  P trend < 0.001 P trend < 0.001  
 Waist circumference (cm)     
  <91.8 736 (24.9) 1.0 1.0 17.3 
  91.8–99.3 743 (25.2) 1.8 (1.3–2.5) 1.3 (0.8–2.0) 13.4 
  99.4–107.1 731 (24.8) 2.4 (2.7–3.3) 1.9 (1.2–2.9) 9.2 
  ≥107.2 734 (24.9) 3.8 (2.8–5.2) 2.7 (1.8–4.1) 6.8 
  P trend < 0.001 P trend < 0.001  
*

Adjusted for age, sex, and race;

P < 0.05;

P < 0.001;

§

P < 0.05;

P < 0.05 compared with first and second quartile;

quartiles.

Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal