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Table 1 —

Demographics and diabetes-related clinical features at baseline for type 2 diabetic patients and those at high risk for HbA1c

All type 2 diabetic patients
High-risk type 2 diabetic patients
ControlExperimentalControlExperimental
n (%) 190 (50.5) 186 (49.4) 110 (56) 88 (44) 
Age (years) 63.6 ± 12.4 64.5 ± 12.3 63.0 ± 11.9 61.6 ± 12.6 
Duration (time since diagnosis in years) 10.2 ± 0.5 9.0 ± 8.6 11.9 ± 10.0 10.4 ± 9.4 
Male 73 (38) 88 (47) 42 (38) 40 (46) 
Ophthalmologist ever 100 (53) 108 (58) 58 (53) 51 (58) 
Ophthalmologist last 2 years 94 (50) 101 (54) 53 (49) 47 (53) 
Insulin 58 (31) 64 (35) 39 (36) 42 (48) 
Metformin 4 (2) 6 (3) 4 (4) 3 (3) 
ACE inhibitor 18 (10) 21 (11) 8 (7) 8 (9) 
Current smokers 18 (9.5) 21 (11.4) 12 (10.9) 12 (13.6) 
HbA1c (%) 8.0 ± 1.9 7.9 ± 1.8 9.3 ± 1.3 9.4 ± 1.4 
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 141.4 ± 22.7 142.5 ± 22.9 145 ± 23.5 139 ± 22.6 
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 77.6 ± 11.6 77.2 ± 11.6 79.1 ± 11.0 78.0 ± 11.9 
Cholesterol (mmol/l) 5.38 ± 1.25 5.42 ± 1.15 5.43 ± 1.30 5.66 ± 1.37 
Cholesterol/HDL 5.8 ± 2.1 6.0 ± 2.1 5.9 ± 2.3 6.6 ± 2.4 
Contacts with project nurse 0.5 ± 0.5* 3.3 ± 2.03 0.5 ± 0.5* 3.9 ± 2.2 
Patients who declined individualized counseling N/A 38 (20) N/A 12 (14) 
Postintervention data collection 156 (82) 158 (85) 92 (84) 75 (85) 
All type 2 diabetic patients
High-risk type 2 diabetic patients
ControlExperimentalControlExperimental
n (%) 190 (50.5) 186 (49.4) 110 (56) 88 (44) 
Age (years) 63.6 ± 12.4 64.5 ± 12.3 63.0 ± 11.9 61.6 ± 12.6 
Duration (time since diagnosis in years) 10.2 ± 0.5 9.0 ± 8.6 11.9 ± 10.0 10.4 ± 9.4 
Male 73 (38) 88 (47) 42 (38) 40 (46) 
Ophthalmologist ever 100 (53) 108 (58) 58 (53) 51 (58) 
Ophthalmologist last 2 years 94 (50) 101 (54) 53 (49) 47 (53) 
Insulin 58 (31) 64 (35) 39 (36) 42 (48) 
Metformin 4 (2) 6 (3) 4 (4) 3 (3) 
ACE inhibitor 18 (10) 21 (11) 8 (7) 8 (9) 
Current smokers 18 (9.5) 21 (11.4) 12 (10.9) 12 (13.6) 
HbA1c (%) 8.0 ± 1.9 7.9 ± 1.8 9.3 ± 1.3 9.4 ± 1.4 
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 141.4 ± 22.7 142.5 ± 22.9 145 ± 23.5 139 ± 22.6 
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 77.6 ± 11.6 77.2 ± 11.6 79.1 ± 11.0 78.0 ± 11.9 
Cholesterol (mmol/l) 5.38 ± 1.25 5.42 ± 1.15 5.43 ± 1.30 5.66 ± 1.37 
Cholesterol/HDL 5.8 ± 2.1 6.0 ± 2.1 5.9 ± 2.3 6.6 ± 2.4 
Contacts with project nurse 0.5 ± 0.5* 3.3 ± 2.03 0.5 ± 0.5* 3.9 ± 2.2 
Patients who declined individualized counseling N/A 38 (20) N/A 12 (14) 
Postintervention data collection 156 (82) 158 (85) 92 (84) 75 (85) 

Data are means ± SD or n (%).

*

Project nurse contacts with control patients occurred only during retinopathy screening sessions, which were offered to all patients in the study. N/A, not available.

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