Skip to Main Content
Table 2 —

Clinical data of patients at the beginning and end of the study

Group patients
Control subjects
Statistical significance
Beginning of studyEnd of studyBeginning of studyEnd of study
n 56 43 56 47 — 
Sex (M/F) 27/29 22/21 34/22 30/17 NS 
Age 62.0 (35–80) 63.0 (37–82) 61.0 (43–78) 64.0 (45–80) NS 
Schooling* N=15, P=31, M=5, H=3, U=0 N=11, P=24, M=5, H=3, U=0 N=2, P=41, M=11, H=1, U=2 N=1, P=33, M=11, H=0, U=2  
Occupation H=14, R=24, W=4, B=7, O=7 H=11, R=18, W=3, B=6, O=5 H=10, R=27, W=2, B=8, O=9 H=7, R=24, W=2, B=7, O=7 NS 
Known duration of diabetes (years) 9.4 (1–23) 11.7 (3–25) 9.8 (1–39) 12.3 (3–41) NS 
Attendance in clinic (years) 4.8 (1–11) 6.8 (3–13) 4.8 (1–9) 7.0 (3–11) NS 
Family history of diabetes 37 30 31 25 NS 
Self-monitoring blood glucose 12 10 16 14 NS 
Smoking (currently/never/stopped) 10/32/14 6/25/12 15/27/14 11/20/14 NS 
Hypertensive 34 26 25 22 NS 
Hypoglycemic treatment: 
 Diet only 10 NS 
 Sulphonylureas 27 18 21 13 NS 
 Metformin NS 
 Sulphonylureas + metformin 18 18 19 25 NS 
 Insulin — — NS 
Quality of life (DQOL/Mod score) 67.6 ± 19.0 55.6 ± 15.9 66.7 ± 25.0 80.8 ± 31.5 P < 0.001 
Knowledge of diabetes (GISED score) 14.9 ± 7.9 24.0 ± 6.6 20.2 ± 7.4 17.4 ± 8.6 P < 0.001 
Health conduct (CdR score) 11.1 ± 2.7 15.8 ± 2.9 12.0 ± 4.3 11.3 ± 4.3 P < 0.001 
Body weight (kg) 77.4 ± 13.1 76.0 ± 13.4 78.2 ± 14.6 77.1 ± 14.7 NS 
BMI (kg/m229.7 ± 4.5 29.0 ± 4.4 27.8 ± 4.1 27.6 ± 4.2 P = 0.06 
Fasting blood glucose (mmol/l) 9.8 ± 2.6 9.9 ± 2.7 10.0 ± 3.1 9.2 ± 2.9 NS 
HbA1c (percentage of total hemoglobin) 7.4 ± 1.4 7.5 ± 1.4 7.4 ± 1.4 8.3 ± 1.8 P < 0.002 
Total cholesterol (mmol/l) 5.8 ± 1.1 5.7 ± 1.2 5.5 ± 0.9 5.6 ± 1.2 NS 
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 1.2 ± 0.3 1.4 ± 0.4 1.3 ± 0.3 1.3 ± 0.3 P < 0.05 
Triglyceride (mmol/l) 2.6 (0.7–11.5) 2.1 (0.7–6.9) 1.7 (0.5–5.2) 1.7 (0.6–3.9) P = 0.53 
Creatinine, (μmol/l) 91.6 ± 14.2 88.8 ± 16.5 90.0 ± 14.0 87.8 ± 17.2 NS 
Albuminuria (none/micro or macro) 32/24 20/21 37/19 19/22 NS 
Diabetic retinopathy (none/mild/more severe) 42/8/6 35/5/3 38/13/5 33/7/7 NS 
Foot ulcers (never/past/active) 54/0/2 42/1/0 53/2/1 45/1/1 NS 
Group patients
Control subjects
Statistical significance
Beginning of studyEnd of studyBeginning of studyEnd of study
n 56 43 56 47 — 
Sex (M/F) 27/29 22/21 34/22 30/17 NS 
Age 62.0 (35–80) 63.0 (37–82) 61.0 (43–78) 64.0 (45–80) NS 
Schooling* N=15, P=31, M=5, H=3, U=0 N=11, P=24, M=5, H=3, U=0 N=2, P=41, M=11, H=1, U=2 N=1, P=33, M=11, H=0, U=2  
Occupation H=14, R=24, W=4, B=7, O=7 H=11, R=18, W=3, B=6, O=5 H=10, R=27, W=2, B=8, O=9 H=7, R=24, W=2, B=7, O=7 NS 
Known duration of diabetes (years) 9.4 (1–23) 11.7 (3–25) 9.8 (1–39) 12.3 (3–41) NS 
Attendance in clinic (years) 4.8 (1–11) 6.8 (3–13) 4.8 (1–9) 7.0 (3–11) NS 
Family history of diabetes 37 30 31 25 NS 
Self-monitoring blood glucose 12 10 16 14 NS 
Smoking (currently/never/stopped) 10/32/14 6/25/12 15/27/14 11/20/14 NS 
Hypertensive 34 26 25 22 NS 
Hypoglycemic treatment: 
 Diet only 10 NS 
 Sulphonylureas 27 18 21 13 NS 
 Metformin NS 
 Sulphonylureas + metformin 18 18 19 25 NS 
 Insulin — — NS 
Quality of life (DQOL/Mod score) 67.6 ± 19.0 55.6 ± 15.9 66.7 ± 25.0 80.8 ± 31.5 P < 0.001 
Knowledge of diabetes (GISED score) 14.9 ± 7.9 24.0 ± 6.6 20.2 ± 7.4 17.4 ± 8.6 P < 0.001 
Health conduct (CdR score) 11.1 ± 2.7 15.8 ± 2.9 12.0 ± 4.3 11.3 ± 4.3 P < 0.001 
Body weight (kg) 77.4 ± 13.1 76.0 ± 13.4 78.2 ± 14.6 77.1 ± 14.7 NS 
BMI (kg/m229.7 ± 4.5 29.0 ± 4.4 27.8 ± 4.1 27.6 ± 4.2 P = 0.06 
Fasting blood glucose (mmol/l) 9.8 ± 2.6 9.9 ± 2.7 10.0 ± 3.1 9.2 ± 2.9 NS 
HbA1c (percentage of total hemoglobin) 7.4 ± 1.4 7.5 ± 1.4 7.4 ± 1.4 8.3 ± 1.8 P < 0.002 
Total cholesterol (mmol/l) 5.8 ± 1.1 5.7 ± 1.2 5.5 ± 0.9 5.6 ± 1.2 NS 
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 1.2 ± 0.3 1.4 ± 0.4 1.3 ± 0.3 1.3 ± 0.3 P < 0.05 
Triglyceride (mmol/l) 2.6 (0.7–11.5) 2.1 (0.7–6.9) 1.7 (0.5–5.2) 1.7 (0.6–3.9) P = 0.53 
Creatinine, (μmol/l) 91.6 ± 14.2 88.8 ± 16.5 90.0 ± 14.0 87.8 ± 17.2 NS 
Albuminuria (none/micro or macro) 32/24 20/21 37/19 19/22 NS 
Diabetic retinopathy (none/mild/more severe) 42/8/6 35/5/3 38/13/5 33/7/7 NS 
Foot ulcers (never/past/active) 54/0/2 42/1/0 53/2/1 45/1/1 NS 

Data are mean ± 1 SD, median range, or absolute numbers, as applicable.

*

N = No formal education, P = primary school, M = middle school, H = high school, U = university degree;

patients followed by group consultations had less education than those in one-to-one care (N versus P versus all others, P < 0.01; N versus all others, P < 0.005);

H = housewife, R = retired, W = white-collar worker; B = blue-collar worker, O = other.

Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal