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Table 1—

Type 2 diabetes incidence rate per 1,000 person-years and adjusted relative risk in 7,124 middle-aged British men during 16.8 years mean follow-up by smoking status at screening and in relation to years since cessation of smoking cigarettes recorded at screening

Smoking groupMen (n)Mean BMICases (n)Rate/1,000 person-yearsAdjusted relative risk (95% CI)
A*BC
Never-smokers 1,541 25.60 47 1.9 1.00 1.00 1.00 
Primary pipe/cigar smokers 185 25.30 2.1 1.04 (0.45, 2.44) 1.18 (0.50, 2.77) 1.24 
All current smokers 2,942 24.94 127 2.9 1.52 (1.10,2.10) 1.74 (1.24,2.43) 1.70 
 Light smokers (1–19/day) 1,065 25.00 49 3.1 1.59 (1.06, 2.37) 1.79 (1.20, 2.68) 1.80 
 Moderate/heavy smokers (≥20/day) 1,877 24.91 78 2.8 1.50 (1.04, 2.16) 1.71 (1.19, 2.45) 1.64 
Secondary pipe/cigar smokers 542 25.49 28 3.4 1.72 (1.07, 2.74) 1.79 (1.20, 2.68) 1.89 
Ex-smokers 1,914 26.04 82 2.8 1.40 (0.97, 2.00) 1.33 (0.92, 1.90) 1.32 
Time since quitting (years at screening)        
 <5 421 26.17 25 3.8 1.98 (1.23, 3.18) 1.89 (1.16, 3.06) 1.78 
 5–10 392 26.30 15 2.5 1.29 (0.73, 2.29) 1.20 (0.67, 2.15) 1.26 
 11–19 534 26.05 25 3.0 1.50 (0.93, 2.41) 1.42 (0.87, 2.31) 1.42 
 ≥20 536 25.74 17 2.1 0.99 (0.57, 1.71) 0.95 (0.54, 1.67) 0.98 
Smoking groupMen (n)Mean BMICases (n)Rate/1,000 person-yearsAdjusted relative risk (95% CI)
A*BC
Never-smokers 1,541 25.60 47 1.9 1.00 1.00 1.00 
Primary pipe/cigar smokers 185 25.30 2.1 1.04 (0.45, 2.44) 1.18 (0.50, 2.77) 1.24 
All current smokers 2,942 24.94 127 2.9 1.52 (1.10,2.10) 1.74 (1.24,2.43) 1.70 
 Light smokers (1–19/day) 1,065 25.00 49 3.1 1.59 (1.06, 2.37) 1.79 (1.20, 2.68) 1.80 
 Moderate/heavy smokers (≥20/day) 1,877 24.91 78 2.8 1.50 (1.04, 2.16) 1.71 (1.19, 2.45) 1.64 
Secondary pipe/cigar smokers 542 25.49 28 3.4 1.72 (1.07, 2.74) 1.79 (1.20, 2.68) 1.89 
Ex-smokers 1,914 26.04 82 2.8 1.40 (0.97, 2.00) 1.33 (0.92, 1.90) 1.32 
Time since quitting (years at screening)        
 <5 421 26.17 25 3.8 1.98 (1.23, 3.18) 1.89 (1.16, 3.06) 1.78 
 5–10 392 26.30 15 2.5 1.29 (0.73, 2.29) 1.20 (0.67, 2.15) 1.26 
 11–19 534 26.05 25 3.0 1.50 (0.93, 2.41) 1.42 (0.87, 2.31) 1.42 
 ≥20 536 25.74 17 2.1 0.99 (0.57, 1.71) 0.95 (0.54, 1.67) 0.98 
*

A, adjusted for age;

B, adjusted for age and BMI;

C, adjusted for age, BMI, physical activity, alcohol intake, social class, indication of pre-existing CHD (undiagnosed), and antihypertensive treatment.

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