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Table 1—

Distribution of baseline risk factors for diabetes according to energy-adjusted* dietary fat intake among 35,988 Iowa women, 1986–1997

Total fat
Saturated fatty acids
Polyunsaturated fatty acids
Monounsaturated fatty acids
Long-chain ω-3 fatty acids
Trans fatty acids
Cholesterol
Animal fat
Vegetable fat
Quintiles of intake:151515151515151515
Mean                   
 Age (years) 61.9 61.1 61.9 61.1 61.6 61.5 61.8 61.1 61.6 61.4 61.6 61.6 62.0 61.1 61.9 61.0 61.5 61.5 
 BMI (kg/m226.2 27.2 26.1 27.0 26.6 26.9 26.2 27.2 26.4 27.4 26.4 26.8 25.9 27.7 26.0 27.3 26.9 26.6 
 WHR 0.830 0.840 0.829 0.839 0.836 0.834 0.830 0.840 0.837 0.833 0.830 0.838 0.831 0.841 0.829 0.840 0.837 0.834 
Percent                   
 Never drinker 49.2 57.8 48.2 57.3 53.4 51.6 48.9 58.7 59.2 49.6 47.3 59.6 52.7 55.2 50.2 56.9 51.9 54.6 
 High-school graduate 83.3 79.9 83.5 78.6 80.5 83.3 84.0 80.0 79.2 84.0 84.4 80.3 82.6 79.9 83.5 78.9 80.7 83.3 
 High physical activity 33.8 18.6 33.0 19.0 27.0 24.3 35.8 17.3 21.5 31.8 36.4 17.3 27.2 24.0 30.6 20.0 28.8 21.1 
 Current smoker 12.9 20.4 13.0 21.1 15.3 16.2 12.6 19.7 15.6 14.2 14.5 16.1 14.5 17.3 13.8 19.0 15.2 16.8 
 Never used hormone replacement therapy 60.2 63.1 58.6 64.3 63.6 59.1 59.5 63.8 62.2 59.7 58.2 63.4 58.8 63.8 58.2 64.6 63.5 59.2 
 Currently married 74.4 81.0 75.2 80.2 77.5 77.4 74.5 81.7 78.5 75.8 76.6 77.2 74.9 79.5 73.7 82.6 79.2 75.4 
 Urban residence (>10,000 population) 38.9 28.9 39.1 28.9 31.4 36.9 39.3 28.7 30.2 37.6 39.1 31.3 38.4 29.0 40.5 26.1 29.9 37.6 
Correlation coefficient                   
 Total fat 1.0
 
0.82
 
0.47
 
0.96
 
−0.16
 
0.50
 
0.35
 
0.67
 
0.40
 
 Saturated fatty acids   1.0
 
−0.03
 
0.70
 
−0.20
 
0.25
 
0.40
 
0.86
 
−0.06
 
 Polyunsaturated fatty acids     1.0
 
0.43
 
0.06
 
0.33
 
−0.07
 
−0.23
 
0.86
 
 Monounsaturated fatty acids       1.0
 
−0.19
 
0.62
 
0.29
 
0.60
 
0.43
 
 Long-chain ω-3 fatty acids         1.0
 
−0.23
 
0.20
 
−0.07
 
−0.11
 
Trans fatty acids           1.0
 
−0.05
 
0.08
 
0.52
 
 Cholesterol             1.0
 
0.58
 
−0.30
 
 Animal fat               1.0
 
−0.42
 
 Vegetable fat                 1.0
 
Total fat
Saturated fatty acids
Polyunsaturated fatty acids
Monounsaturated fatty acids
Long-chain ω-3 fatty acids
Trans fatty acids
Cholesterol
Animal fat
Vegetable fat
Quintiles of intake:151515151515151515
Mean                   
 Age (years) 61.9 61.1 61.9 61.1 61.6 61.5 61.8 61.1 61.6 61.4 61.6 61.6 62.0 61.1 61.9 61.0 61.5 61.5 
 BMI (kg/m226.2 27.2 26.1 27.0 26.6 26.9 26.2 27.2 26.4 27.4 26.4 26.8 25.9 27.7 26.0 27.3 26.9 26.6 
 WHR 0.830 0.840 0.829 0.839 0.836 0.834 0.830 0.840 0.837 0.833 0.830 0.838 0.831 0.841 0.829 0.840 0.837 0.834 
Percent                   
 Never drinker 49.2 57.8 48.2 57.3 53.4 51.6 48.9 58.7 59.2 49.6 47.3 59.6 52.7 55.2 50.2 56.9 51.9 54.6 
 High-school graduate 83.3 79.9 83.5 78.6 80.5 83.3 84.0 80.0 79.2 84.0 84.4 80.3 82.6 79.9 83.5 78.9 80.7 83.3 
 High physical activity 33.8 18.6 33.0 19.0 27.0 24.3 35.8 17.3 21.5 31.8 36.4 17.3 27.2 24.0 30.6 20.0 28.8 21.1 
 Current smoker 12.9 20.4 13.0 21.1 15.3 16.2 12.6 19.7 15.6 14.2 14.5 16.1 14.5 17.3 13.8 19.0 15.2 16.8 
 Never used hormone replacement therapy 60.2 63.1 58.6 64.3 63.6 59.1 59.5 63.8 62.2 59.7 58.2 63.4 58.8 63.8 58.2 64.6 63.5 59.2 
 Currently married 74.4 81.0 75.2 80.2 77.5 77.4 74.5 81.7 78.5 75.8 76.6 77.2 74.9 79.5 73.7 82.6 79.2 75.4 
 Urban residence (>10,000 population) 38.9 28.9 39.1 28.9 31.4 36.9 39.3 28.7 30.2 37.6 39.1 31.3 38.4 29.0 40.5 26.1 29.9 37.6 
Correlation coefficient                   
 Total fat 1.0
 
0.82
 
0.47
 
0.96
 
−0.16
 
0.50
 
0.35
 
0.67
 
0.40
 
 Saturated fatty acids   1.0
 
−0.03
 
0.70
 
−0.20
 
0.25
 
0.40
 
0.86
 
−0.06
 
 Polyunsaturated fatty acids     1.0
 
0.43
 
0.06
 
0.33
 
−0.07
 
−0.23
 
0.86
 
 Monounsaturated fatty acids       1.0
 
−0.19
 
0.62
 
0.29
 
0.60
 
0.43
 
 Long-chain ω-3 fatty acids         1.0
 
−0.23
 
0.20
 
−0.07
 
−0.11
 
Trans fatty acids           1.0
 
−0.05
 
0.08
 
0.52
 
 Cholesterol             1.0
 
0.58
 
−0.30
 
 Animal fat               1.0
 
−0.42
 
 Vegetable fat                 1.0
 
*

Adjusted for total energy intake according to the methods of Willett and Stampfer (19).

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