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Table 2—

Multivariate-adjusted relative risks of incident diabetes across quintiles of dietary fat variables among 35,988 Iowa women, 1986–1992

VariableQuintile of Intake
P for trend
12345
Total dietary fat       
 Median intake (g/day) 55.7 56.1 60.1 66.8 86.6  
 Cases 332 351 380 387 440  
 Relative risk* (95% CI) 1.00 1.04 (0.88–1.21) 1.01 (0.86–1.18) 1.02 (0.87–1.19) 1.04 (0.89–1.21) 0.69 
 Relative risk (95% CI) 1.00 1.00 (0.85–1.17) 0.95 (0.81–1.11) 0.93 (0.79–1.10) 0.89 (0.75–1.05) 0.11 
Saturated fatty acids       
 Median intake (g/day) 19.3 19.2 20.4 23.2 31.8  
 Cases 313 342 386 432 417  
 Relative risk* (95% CI) 1.00 1.07 (0.91–1.26) 1.10 (0.94–1.30) 1.16 (1.00–1.36) 1.11 (0.95–1.29) 0.14 
 Relative risk (95% CI) 1.00 1.05 (0.89–1.24) 1.06 (0.90–1.25) 1.10 (0.94–1.29) 1.00 (0.85–1.18) 0.91 
Polyunsaturated fatty acids       
 Median intake (g/day) 8.9 9.2 10.4 12.2 16.6  
 Cases 412 372 369 351 386  
 Relative risk* (95% CI) 1.00 0.93 (0.80–1.08) 0.90 (0.78–1.05) 0.84 (0.73–0.98) 0.87 (0.75–1.00) 0.03 
 Relative risk (95% CI) 1.00 0.94 (0.81–1.08) 0.91 (0.78–1.06) 0.85 (0.73–0.99) 0.88 (0.76–1.02) 0.05 
Monounsaturated fatty acids       
 Median intake (g/day) 20.4 20.9 22.7 25.7 33.8  
 Cases 336 354 378 368 454  
 Relative risk* (95% CI) 1.00 1.01 (0.86–1.18) 1.05 (0.90–1.23) 0.95 (0.81–1.11) 1.06 (0.91–1.23) 0.58 
 Relative risk (95% CI) 1.00 0.99 (0.84–1.16) 1.01 (0.86–1.19) 0.90 (0.76–1.06) 0.96 (0.82–1.13) 0.48 
Long-chain ω-3 fatty acids       
 Median intake (g/day) 0.03 0.09 0.13 0.20 0.39  
 Cases 387 360 358 345 440  
 Relative risk* (95% CI) 1.00 0.97 (0.83–1.12) 0.99 (0.85–1.16) 0.97 (0.83–1.13) 1.15 (1.00–1.33) 0.02 
 Relative risk (95% CI) 1.00 0.98 (0.84–1.14) 1.01 (0.87–1.18) 0.99 (0.85–1.15) 1.20 (1.03–1.39) 0.006 
Trans fatty acids       
 Median intake 2.2 2.4 2.8 3.5 5.2  
 Cases 363 388 379 360 400  
 Relative risk* (95% CI) 1.00 1.01 (0.87–1.18) 0.93 (0.80–1.09) 0.86 (0.74–1.01) 0.88 (0.76–1.03) 0.03 
 Relative risk (95% CI) 1.00 0.99 (0.85–1.15) 0.90 (0.77–1.05) 0.82 (0.70–0.97) 0.83 (0.70–0.97) 0.004 
Cholesterol       
 Median intake (mg/day) 185 201 237 281 382  
 Cases 325 301 368 402 494  
 Relative risk* (95% CI) 1.00 0.87 (0.74–1.03) 1.07 (0.91–1.25) 1.10 (0.94–1.28) 1.24 (1.07–1.43) 0.0001 
 Relative risk (95% CI) 1.00 0.86 (0.73–1.01) 1.04 (0.89–1.22) 1.06 (0.91–1.24) 1.17 (1.01–1.37) 0.002 
Keys score       
 Median 31.4 37.4 41.6 46.0 53.2  
 Cases 283 346 400 422 439  
 Relative risk* (95% CI) 1.00 1.14 (0.97–1.34) 1.21 (1.03–1.42) 1.25 (1.07–1.46) 1.27 (1.08–1.49) 0.002 
 Relative risk (95% CI) 1.00 1.12 (0.95–1.32) 1.17 (1.00–1.37) 1.19 (1.01–1.39) 1.17 (0.99–1.38) 0.06 
Animal fat       
 Median intake (g/day) 29.1 29.8 33.7 40.4 56.8  
 Cases 317 344 364 416 449  
 Relative risk* (95% CI) 1.00 1.08 (0.92–1.27) 1.08 (0.92–1.27) 1.17 (1.01–1.37) 1.19 (1.02–1.39) 0.01 
 Relative risk (95% CI) 1.00 1.06 (0.90–1.25) 1.04 (0.89–1.23) 1.12 (0.95–1.31) 1.09 (0.93–1.28) 0.24 
Vegetable fat       
 Median intake (g/day) 18.6 20.2 23.7 29.2 41.7  
 Cases 434 377 358 349 372  
 Relative risk* (95% CI) 1.00 0.88 (0.76–1.02) 0.84 (0.73–0.98) 0.81 (0.69–0.94) 0.78 (0.68–0.91) 0.0007 
 Relative risk (95% CI) 1.00 0.86 (0.76–1.03) 0.85 (0.73–0.99) 0.81 (0.70–0.95) 0.79 (0.68–0.92) 0.001 
VariableQuintile of Intake
P for trend
12345
Total dietary fat       
 Median intake (g/day) 55.7 56.1 60.1 66.8 86.6  
 Cases 332 351 380 387 440  
 Relative risk* (95% CI) 1.00 1.04 (0.88–1.21) 1.01 (0.86–1.18) 1.02 (0.87–1.19) 1.04 (0.89–1.21) 0.69 
 Relative risk (95% CI) 1.00 1.00 (0.85–1.17) 0.95 (0.81–1.11) 0.93 (0.79–1.10) 0.89 (0.75–1.05) 0.11 
Saturated fatty acids       
 Median intake (g/day) 19.3 19.2 20.4 23.2 31.8  
 Cases 313 342 386 432 417  
 Relative risk* (95% CI) 1.00 1.07 (0.91–1.26) 1.10 (0.94–1.30) 1.16 (1.00–1.36) 1.11 (0.95–1.29) 0.14 
 Relative risk (95% CI) 1.00 1.05 (0.89–1.24) 1.06 (0.90–1.25) 1.10 (0.94–1.29) 1.00 (0.85–1.18) 0.91 
Polyunsaturated fatty acids       
 Median intake (g/day) 8.9 9.2 10.4 12.2 16.6  
 Cases 412 372 369 351 386  
 Relative risk* (95% CI) 1.00 0.93 (0.80–1.08) 0.90 (0.78–1.05) 0.84 (0.73–0.98) 0.87 (0.75–1.00) 0.03 
 Relative risk (95% CI) 1.00 0.94 (0.81–1.08) 0.91 (0.78–1.06) 0.85 (0.73–0.99) 0.88 (0.76–1.02) 0.05 
Monounsaturated fatty acids       
 Median intake (g/day) 20.4 20.9 22.7 25.7 33.8  
 Cases 336 354 378 368 454  
 Relative risk* (95% CI) 1.00 1.01 (0.86–1.18) 1.05 (0.90–1.23) 0.95 (0.81–1.11) 1.06 (0.91–1.23) 0.58 
 Relative risk (95% CI) 1.00 0.99 (0.84–1.16) 1.01 (0.86–1.19) 0.90 (0.76–1.06) 0.96 (0.82–1.13) 0.48 
Long-chain ω-3 fatty acids       
 Median intake (g/day) 0.03 0.09 0.13 0.20 0.39  
 Cases 387 360 358 345 440  
 Relative risk* (95% CI) 1.00 0.97 (0.83–1.12) 0.99 (0.85–1.16) 0.97 (0.83–1.13) 1.15 (1.00–1.33) 0.02 
 Relative risk (95% CI) 1.00 0.98 (0.84–1.14) 1.01 (0.87–1.18) 0.99 (0.85–1.15) 1.20 (1.03–1.39) 0.006 
Trans fatty acids       
 Median intake 2.2 2.4 2.8 3.5 5.2  
 Cases 363 388 379 360 400  
 Relative risk* (95% CI) 1.00 1.01 (0.87–1.18) 0.93 (0.80–1.09) 0.86 (0.74–1.01) 0.88 (0.76–1.03) 0.03 
 Relative risk (95% CI) 1.00 0.99 (0.85–1.15) 0.90 (0.77–1.05) 0.82 (0.70–0.97) 0.83 (0.70–0.97) 0.004 
Cholesterol       
 Median intake (mg/day) 185 201 237 281 382  
 Cases 325 301 368 402 494  
 Relative risk* (95% CI) 1.00 0.87 (0.74–1.03) 1.07 (0.91–1.25) 1.10 (0.94–1.28) 1.24 (1.07–1.43) 0.0001 
 Relative risk (95% CI) 1.00 0.86 (0.73–1.01) 1.04 (0.89–1.22) 1.06 (0.91–1.24) 1.17 (1.01–1.37) 0.002 
Keys score       
 Median 31.4 37.4 41.6 46.0 53.2  
 Cases 283 346 400 422 439  
 Relative risk* (95% CI) 1.00 1.14 (0.97–1.34) 1.21 (1.03–1.42) 1.25 (1.07–1.46) 1.27 (1.08–1.49) 0.002 
 Relative risk (95% CI) 1.00 1.12 (0.95–1.32) 1.17 (1.00–1.37) 1.19 (1.01–1.39) 1.17 (0.99–1.38) 0.06 
Animal fat       
 Median intake (g/day) 29.1 29.8 33.7 40.4 56.8  
 Cases 317 344 364 416 449  
 Relative risk* (95% CI) 1.00 1.08 (0.92–1.27) 1.08 (0.92–1.27) 1.17 (1.01–1.37) 1.19 (1.02–1.39) 0.01 
 Relative risk (95% CI) 1.00 1.06 (0.90–1.25) 1.04 (0.89–1.23) 1.12 (0.95–1.31) 1.09 (0.93–1.28) 0.24 
Vegetable fat       
 Median intake (g/day) 18.6 20.2 23.7 29.2 41.7  
 Cases 434 377 358 349 372  
 Relative risk* (95% CI) 1.00 0.88 (0.76–1.02) 0.84 (0.73–0.98) 0.81 (0.69–0.94) 0.78 (0.68–0.91) 0.0007 
 Relative risk (95% CI) 1.00 0.86 (0.76–1.03) 0.85 (0.73–0.99) 0.81 (0.70–0.95) 0.79 (0.68–0.92) 0.001 
*

Proportional hazards regression models were adjusted for age, total energy, WHR (quintiles: <0.762, 0.763–0.805, 0.806–0.848, 0.849–0.901, >0.901), BMI (quintiles: <22.7, 22.7–24.8, 24.9–27.0, 27.1–30.2, >30.2), physical activity (four levels each for frequency of vigorous and moderate activity: never or rarely, a few times a year, from a few times a month to about once a week, or 2 times a week or more), cigarette smoking (none, 1–19 pack-years, 20–39 pack-years or ≥40 pack-years), alcohol consumption (none, <4 g per day, from 4–10 g per day, or ≥10 g per day), education (no high school diploma, high school diploma, college or vocational school but no degree, or college degree), marital status (currently married, never married, separated or divorced, or widowed), residential area (farm, rural or small town with population up to 2,499, town of population from 2,500–10,000 or city or town with population >10,000), and hormone replacement therapy (current, former, or never).

Additionally adjusted for energy-adjusted dietary magnesium (quintiles) and cereal fiber (quintiles).

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