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Table 3—

Multivariate-adjusted* relative risks of incident diabetes across quintiles of dietary fat variables among 35,988 Iowa women, 1986–1992

VariableQuintile of Intake
P for trend
12345
Saturated fatty acids 
 Relative risk (95% CI) 1.00 1.06 (0.89–1.27) 1.07 (0.89–1.29) 1.11 (0.91–1.36) 0.95 (0.76–1.19) 0.71 
Polyunsaturated fatty acids       
 Relative risk (95% CI) 1.00 0.94 (0.81–1.09) 0.93 (0.79–1.08) 0.88 (0.74–1.03) 0.90 (0.75–1.07) 0.19 
 Relative risk (95% CI) 1.00 0.92 (0.79–1.07) 0.89 (0.76–1.04) 0.83 (0.71–0.98) 0.84 (0.71–0.98) 0.02 
Monounsaturated fatty acids       
 Relative risk (95% CI) 1.00 0.99 (0.83–1.19) 1.03 (0.84–1.27) 0.93 (0.74–1.18) 1.02 (0.78–1.34) 0.93 
Long-chain ω-3 fatty acids       
 Relative risk (95% CI) 1.00 0.97 (0.83–1.12) 0.99 (0.84–1.15) 0.94 (0.80–1.10) 1.11 (0.94–1.30) 0.14 
Trans fatty acids       
 Relative risk (95% CI) 1.00 1.01 (0.86–1.19) 0.94 (0.79–1.12) 0.88 (0.73–1.06) 0.92 (0.75–1.11) 0.20 
Cholesterol       
 Relative risk (95% CI) 1.00 0.84 (0.71–1.00) 1.02 (0.86–1.22) 1.03 (0.87–1.23) 1.11 (0.92–1.33) 0.07 
Animal fat       
 Relative risk§ (95% CI) 1.00 1.04 (0.88–1.22) 0.97 (0.82–1.15) 0.99 (0.83–1.18) 0.89 (0.73–1.07) 0.18 
Vegetable fat       
 Relative risk§ (95% CI) 1.00 0.90 (0.78–1.04) 0.87 (0.75–1.01) 0.84 (0.72–0.98) 0.82 (0.70–0.97) 0.02 
 Relative risk (95% CI) 1.00 0.88 (0.76–1.02) 0.84 (0.72–0.97) 0.81 (0.6–0.94) 0.78 (0.67–0.91) 0.001 
VariableQuintile of Intake
P for trend
12345
Saturated fatty acids 
 Relative risk (95% CI) 1.00 1.06 (0.89–1.27) 1.07 (0.89–1.29) 1.11 (0.91–1.36) 0.95 (0.76–1.19) 0.71 
Polyunsaturated fatty acids       
 Relative risk (95% CI) 1.00 0.94 (0.81–1.09) 0.93 (0.79–1.08) 0.88 (0.74–1.03) 0.90 (0.75–1.07) 0.19 
 Relative risk (95% CI) 1.00 0.92 (0.79–1.07) 0.89 (0.76–1.04) 0.83 (0.71–0.98) 0.84 (0.71–0.98) 0.02 
Monounsaturated fatty acids       
 Relative risk (95% CI) 1.00 0.99 (0.83–1.19) 1.03 (0.84–1.27) 0.93 (0.74–1.18) 1.02 (0.78–1.34) 0.93 
Long-chain ω-3 fatty acids       
 Relative risk (95% CI) 1.00 0.97 (0.83–1.12) 0.99 (0.84–1.15) 0.94 (0.80–1.10) 1.11 (0.94–1.30) 0.14 
Trans fatty acids       
 Relative risk (95% CI) 1.00 1.01 (0.86–1.19) 0.94 (0.79–1.12) 0.88 (0.73–1.06) 0.92 (0.75–1.11) 0.20 
Cholesterol       
 Relative risk (95% CI) 1.00 0.84 (0.71–1.00) 1.02 (0.86–1.22) 1.03 (0.87–1.23) 1.11 (0.92–1.33) 0.07 
Animal fat       
 Relative risk§ (95% CI) 1.00 1.04 (0.88–1.22) 0.97 (0.82–1.15) 0.99 (0.83–1.18) 0.89 (0.73–1.07) 0.18 
Vegetable fat       
 Relative risk§ (95% CI) 1.00 0.90 (0.78–1.04) 0.87 (0.75–1.01) 0.84 (0.72–0.98) 0.82 (0.70–0.97) 0.02 
 Relative risk (95% CI) 1.00 0.88 (0.76–1.02) 0.84 (0.72–0.97) 0.81 (0.6–0.94) 0.78 (0.67–0.91) 0.001 
*

All models included variables listed in Table 2, reference 2 and dietary protein (quintiles);

model included saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, ω-3 fatty acids, and cholesterol (quintiles);

model included total fat, monounsaturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and ω-3 fatty acids quintiles;

§

model included vegetable fat and animal fat (quintiles);

model included total fat (quintiles).

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