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Table 2—

Bivariable associations with diabetes metabolic control

Independent variableDependent variable: most recent HbA1c level
Dependent variable: change in HbA1c level*
Parameter estimateP valueR2Parameter estimateP valueR2
Race (white = 0) 0.29 0.04 0.5% 0.25 0.05 0.3% 
Sex (male = 0) −0.17 0.24 NA −0.04 0.74 NA 
Age −0.026 <0.0001 2.3% −0.01 0.04 0.4% 
Income/copay 0.06 0.11 NA −0.008 0.83 NA 
Adherence (0–100%) −0.019 <0.0001 4.0% −0.013 <0.0001 1.7% 
No. oral agents 0.79 <0.0001 6.1% 0.55 <0.0001 2.6% 
Insulin use (0 or 1) 0.56 0.0003 1.6% 0.38 0.007 0.7% 
No. HbA1c levels −0.004 0.93 NA 0.03 0.55 NA 
No. encounters −0.008 0.45 NA 0.006 0.50 NA 
Continuity index −0.09 0.78 NA 0.55 0.13 NA 
Independent variableDependent variable: most recent HbA1c level
Dependent variable: change in HbA1c level*
Parameter estimateP valueR2Parameter estimateP valueR2
Race (white = 0) 0.29 0.04 0.5% 0.25 0.05 0.3% 
Sex (male = 0) −0.17 0.24 NA −0.04 0.74 NA 
Age −0.026 <0.0001 2.3% −0.01 0.04 0.4% 
Income/copay 0.06 0.11 NA −0.008 0.83 NA 
Adherence (0–100%) −0.019 <0.0001 4.0% −0.013 <0.0001 1.7% 
No. oral agents 0.79 <0.0001 6.1% 0.55 <0.0001 2.6% 
Insulin use (0 or 1) 0.56 0.0003 1.6% 0.38 0.007 0.7% 
No. HbA1c levels −0.004 0.93 NA 0.03 0.55 NA 
No. encounters −0.008 0.45 NA 0.006 0.50 NA 
Continuity index −0.09 0.78 NA 0.55 0.13 NA 
*

The initial HbA1c level was controlled for in this model. A negative parameter estimate indicates HbA1c improved with increment in independent variable.

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