Skip to Main Content
Table 1—

Demographic and pregnancy characteristics and risk of IA in offspring

CharacteristicAffectedUnaffectedUnadjusted HR (95% CI)Wald χ2P
n 16 206   
Age at last follow-up (years)* 4.3 ± 1.9 4.0 ± 1.4 NA NA 
Child’s sex (% male) 7 (43.7) 101 (49.0) 0.87 (0.32–2.33) 0.779 
Child’s ethnicity (% non-Hispanic Caucasian) 15 (93.7) 152 (73.8) 5.29 (0.7–40.06) 0.133 
Maternal age at delivery (years) 31.3 ± 6.0 29.7 ± 5.8 1.26 (0.8–1.96) 0.331 
Maternal education at delivery (% ≤12 years) 4 (25.0) 48 (23.3) 1.09 (0.35–3.39) 0.878 
Income at delivery (% <$30,000/year)§ 4 (26.7) 48 (23.8) 1.04 (0.33–3.28) 0.942 
Birth weight (g)§ 3,122.9 ± 564.9 3,286.4 ± 527.7 0.74 (0.47–1.18) 0.238 
Pre- or post-term delivery§ 2 (13.3) 69 (33.7) 0.31 (0.07–1.37) 0.148 
Cesarean delivery 1 (6.2) 43 (20.9) 0.27 (0.04–2.04) 0.226 
Breast-fed <3 months§ 6 (37.5) 66 (32.3) 1.3 (0.47–3.56) 0.619 
GDM 3 (18.8) 3 (1.5) 9.64 (2.74–33.97) 0.006 
First-degree type 1 diabetic relative 6 (37.5) 62 (30.1) 1.71 (0.62–4.75) 0.302 
HLA-DR3/4, DQ8 genotype 14 (87.5) 129 (62.6) 3.17 (0.72–14.01) 0.166 
CharacteristicAffectedUnaffectedUnadjusted HR (95% CI)Wald χ2P
n 16 206   
Age at last follow-up (years)* 4.3 ± 1.9 4.0 ± 1.4 NA NA 
Child’s sex (% male) 7 (43.7) 101 (49.0) 0.87 (0.32–2.33) 0.779 
Child’s ethnicity (% non-Hispanic Caucasian) 15 (93.7) 152 (73.8) 5.29 (0.7–40.06) 0.133 
Maternal age at delivery (years) 31.3 ± 6.0 29.7 ± 5.8 1.26 (0.8–1.96) 0.331 
Maternal education at delivery (% ≤12 years) 4 (25.0) 48 (23.3) 1.09 (0.35–3.39) 0.878 
Income at delivery (% <$30,000/year)§ 4 (26.7) 48 (23.8) 1.04 (0.33–3.28) 0.942 
Birth weight (g)§ 3,122.9 ± 564.9 3,286.4 ± 527.7 0.74 (0.47–1.18) 0.238 
Pre- or post-term delivery§ 2 (13.3) 69 (33.7) 0.31 (0.07–1.37) 0.148 
Cesarean delivery 1 (6.2) 43 (20.9) 0.27 (0.04–2.04) 0.226 
Breast-fed <3 months§ 6 (37.5) 66 (32.3) 1.3 (0.47–3.56) 0.619 
GDM 3 (18.8) 3 (1.5) 9.64 (2.74–33.97) 0.006 
First-degree type 1 diabetic relative 6 (37.5) 62 (30.1) 1.71 (0.62–4.75) 0.302 
HLA-DR3/4, DQ8 genotype 14 (87.5) 129 (62.6) 3.17 (0.72–14.01) 0.166 

Data are means ± SD or n (%) unless otherwise indicated.

*

For affected, average age at first positive test for IA is 2.5 ± 1.7 years;

outcome determined by difference in age of affected subject at first positive visit and age at last negative visit;

HR associated with incremental values: maternal age = 5 years, birth weight = 500 g;

§

missing observations include income: one in the affected group (6.2%) and four (1.9%) in the unaffected group, birth weight: one from the unaffected group (0.5%), pre- or post-term delivery: one in each affected (6.2%) and unaffected group (0.5%), and breast-feeding duration: two missing observations from unaffected group (1.0%).

Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal