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Table 2—

Maternal dietary exposures during pregnancy and risk of IA in offspring

Parameters (mean daily intake)AffectedUnaffectedUnadjusted HR (95% CI)Wald χ2P
n 16 206   
Vitamin D intake via food (IU) 167.6 252.3 0.49 (0.26–0.94)* 0.059 
Vitamin D intake via supplements (IU)     
 ≥400 13 (81.3) 116 (56.3) 3.09 (0.88–10.83) 0.107 
EPA and DHA (ω-3 fatty acids) (g)     
 ≥0.10 9 (56.3) 137 (66.5) 0.64 (0.24–1.71) 0.380 
Linolenic acid (ω-3 fatty acid) (g) 1.4 1.3 1.16 (0.75–1.80)* 0.503 
Arachidonic acid (ω-6 fatty acid) (g) 0.13 0.14 0.88 (0.5–1.56)* 0.672 
Linoleic acid (ω-6 fatty acid) (g)     
 <7.92 4 (25.0) 71 (34.5) 1.0 (referent)  
 7.92–11.78 8 (50.0) 66 (32.0) 2.01 (0.55–7.37) 0.274 
 >11.78 4 (25.0) 69 (33.5) 1.04 (0.26–4.16) 0.955 
Ratio of ω-6 total:ω-3 total 7.9 7.8 1.13 (0.70–1.83)* 0.624 
Caloric intake (kcal)     
 <1,718.88 5 (31.2) 68 (33.0) 1.0 (referent)  
 1,718.88–2,491.04 9 (56.2) 67 (32.5) 1.61 (0.54–4.82) 0.405 
 >2,491.04 2 (12.5) 71 (34.5) 0.37 (0.07–1.93) 0.258 
Parameters (mean daily intake)AffectedUnaffectedUnadjusted HR (95% CI)Wald χ2P
n 16 206   
Vitamin D intake via food (IU) 167.6 252.3 0.49 (0.26–0.94)* 0.059 
Vitamin D intake via supplements (IU)     
 ≥400 13 (81.3) 116 (56.3) 3.09 (0.88–10.83) 0.107 
EPA and DHA (ω-3 fatty acids) (g)     
 ≥0.10 9 (56.3) 137 (66.5) 0.64 (0.24–1.71) 0.380 
Linolenic acid (ω-3 fatty acid) (g) 1.4 1.3 1.16 (0.75–1.80)* 0.503 
Arachidonic acid (ω-6 fatty acid) (g) 0.13 0.14 0.88 (0.5–1.56)* 0.672 
Linoleic acid (ω-6 fatty acid) (g)     
 <7.92 4 (25.0) 71 (34.5) 1.0 (referent)  
 7.92–11.78 8 (50.0) 66 (32.0) 2.01 (0.55–7.37) 0.274 
 >11.78 4 (25.0) 69 (33.5) 1.04 (0.26–4.16) 0.955 
Ratio of ω-6 total:ω-3 total 7.9 7.8 1.13 (0.70–1.83)* 0.624 
Caloric intake (kcal)     
 <1,718.88 5 (31.2) 68 (33.0) 1.0 (referent)  
 1,718.88–2,491.04 9 (56.2) 67 (32.5) 1.61 (0.54–4.82) 0.405 
 >2,491.04 2 (12.5) 71 (34.5) 0.37 (0.07–1.93) 0.258 

Data are n (%) unless otherwise indicated.

*

HR represent risk for an SD difference in intake: SD vitamin D = 155.6 IU; SD linolenic acid = 0.69 g; SD arachidonic acid = 0.08 g; SD ratio ω-6 total to ω-3 total = 2.00;

categorized as tertiles because variable did not meet the assumption of log linearity.

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