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Table 1—

Properties and biological actions of GIP and GLP-1

GIPGLP-1
42–Amino acid peptide 30/31–Amino acid peptide 
Released from duodenum Released from distal small bowel and colon 
NH2-terminal inactivation by DPP-IV NH2-terminal inactivation by DPP-IV 
Stimulates insulin secretion Stimulates insulin secretion 
Minimal effect on gastric emptying Inhibits gastric emptying 
No effect on glucagon secretion Inhibits glucagon secretion 
No regulation of satiety and body weight Inhibits food intake and weight gain 
Promotes expansion of β-cell mass Promotes expansion of β-cell mass 
Normal GIP secretion in diabetic subjects Reduced GLP-1 secretion in diabetic subjects 
Defective GIP response in type 2 diabetes Preserved GLP-1 response in type 2 diabetes 
GIPGLP-1
42–Amino acid peptide 30/31–Amino acid peptide 
Released from duodenum Released from distal small bowel and colon 
NH2-terminal inactivation by DPP-IV NH2-terminal inactivation by DPP-IV 
Stimulates insulin secretion Stimulates insulin secretion 
Minimal effect on gastric emptying Inhibits gastric emptying 
No effect on glucagon secretion Inhibits glucagon secretion 
No regulation of satiety and body weight Inhibits food intake and weight gain 
Promotes expansion of β-cell mass Promotes expansion of β-cell mass 
Normal GIP secretion in diabetic subjects Reduced GLP-1 secretion in diabetic subjects 
Defective GIP response in type 2 diabetes Preserved GLP-1 response in type 2 diabetes 
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