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Table 1—

Metabolic syndrome components and socioeconomic characteristics across groups of household wealth, adjusted for age and number of household members

nHousehold wealth category
P*
≥£500,000 (∼$900,000)£100,000–499,999£40,000–99,999<£40,000 (∼$72,000)
Men (n4,090 252 2,833 671 334  
    Diabetes (%) 4,089 2.6 4.5 7.1 10.3 <0.001 
    Impaired glucose tolerance (%) 3,415 13.6 12.5 11.4 14.2 0.795 
    Impaired fasting glucose (%) 3,415 2.3 3.6 4.0 2.6 0.983 
    Insulin resistance (%) 3,792 19.7 21.8 25.8 29.4 0.001 
    Obesity (%) 3,556 55.6 58.6 65.5 69.7 <0.001 
    Dyslipidemia (%) 4,089 27.4 31.5 34.7 38.5 0.002 
    Hypertension (%) 4,090 23.0 28.2 32.8 28.2 0.106 
    Metabolic syndrome (%) 4,090 12.0 15.0 18.3 23.6 <0.001 
    Fasting glucose (mmol/l)† 3,836 5.13 5.09 5.08 5.06 0.145 
    Postchallenge glucose (mmol/l)† 3,426 5.75 5.73 5.66 5.64 0.877 
    HOMA score† 3,792 1.59 1.65 1.72 1.81 0.006 
    Higher education (%) 3,941 73.0 42.3 25.8 28.9 <0.001 
    Personal income ≥£25,000 (%) 4,079 75.3 55.1 35.8 32.6 <0.001 
    Personal income <£15,000 (%) 4,079 3.1 17.3 27.8 32.9 <0.001 
    Household income ≥£60,000 (%) 3,554 40.1 18.1 4.4 3.8 <0.001 
    Household income <£20,000 (%) 3,554 2.0 14.2 26.9 35.0 <0.001 
    Administrative grade (%) 4,090 76.9 47.6 16.9 14.4 <0.001 
    Father’s social class I/II (%) 2,838 82.9 67.9 70.0 64.3 0.048 
    Married/cohabiting 4,080 87.6 84.6 75.5 72.0 <0.001 
    Partner in paid work 2,507 74.3 71.3 68.7 68.9 0.213 
    No. of household members 4,090 2.54 2.43 2.12 1.94 <0.001 
Women (n1,509 85 787 385 252  
    Diabetes (%) 1,509 5.3 4.8 7.9 6.3 0.109 
    Impaired glucose tolerance (%) 1,255 10.1 13.8 14.4 15.3 0.409 
    Impaired fasting glucose (%) 1,255 2.5 1.2 1.4 2.5 0.841 
    Insulin resistance (%) 1,380 17.7 18.1 24.3 30.8 <0.001 
    Obesity (%) 1,355 17.7 30.0 37.1 46.5 <0.001 
    Dyslipidemia (%) 1,509 12.9 15.3 21.8 23.9 0.001 
    Hypertension (%) 1,509 21.3 24.8 27.7 39.3 <0.001 
    Metabolic syndrome (%) 1,509 5.7 9.0 14.4 20.1 <0.001 
    Fasting glucose (mmol/l)† 1,390 4.89 4.88 4.92 4.93 0.194 
    Postchallenge glucose (mmol/l)† 1,258 5.94 5.92 5.93 6.10 0.358 
    HOMA score† 1,380 1.35 1.41 1.58 1.70 <0.001 
    Higher education (%) 1,393 68.1 35.0 17.3 15.2 <0.001 
    Personal income ≥£25,000 (%) 1,498 50.7 30.9 11.9 7.2 <0.001 
    Personal income <£15,000 (%) 1,498 30.4 39.3 54.7 57.1 <0.001 
    Household income ≥£60,000 (%) 1,333 57.3 13.9 3.2 2.1 <0.001 
    Household income <£20,000 (%) 1,333 7.4 25.5 51.6 64.6 <0.001 
    Administrative grade (%) 1,509 71.0 22.1 2.3 0.8 <0.001 
    Father’s social class I/II (%) 988 85.7 69.7 60.6 53.8 <0.001 
    Married/cohabiting 1,505 67.6 63.2 50.6 46.7 <0.001 
    Partner in paid work 645 90.5 93.8 89.7 89.3 0.560 
    No. of household members 1,509 2.15 1.58 1.29 1.32 <0.001 
nHousehold wealth category
P*
≥£500,000 (∼$900,000)£100,000–499,999£40,000–99,999<£40,000 (∼$72,000)
Men (n4,090 252 2,833 671 334  
    Diabetes (%) 4,089 2.6 4.5 7.1 10.3 <0.001 
    Impaired glucose tolerance (%) 3,415 13.6 12.5 11.4 14.2 0.795 
    Impaired fasting glucose (%) 3,415 2.3 3.6 4.0 2.6 0.983 
    Insulin resistance (%) 3,792 19.7 21.8 25.8 29.4 0.001 
    Obesity (%) 3,556 55.6 58.6 65.5 69.7 <0.001 
    Dyslipidemia (%) 4,089 27.4 31.5 34.7 38.5 0.002 
    Hypertension (%) 4,090 23.0 28.2 32.8 28.2 0.106 
    Metabolic syndrome (%) 4,090 12.0 15.0 18.3 23.6 <0.001 
    Fasting glucose (mmol/l)† 3,836 5.13 5.09 5.08 5.06 0.145 
    Postchallenge glucose (mmol/l)† 3,426 5.75 5.73 5.66 5.64 0.877 
    HOMA score† 3,792 1.59 1.65 1.72 1.81 0.006 
    Higher education (%) 3,941 73.0 42.3 25.8 28.9 <0.001 
    Personal income ≥£25,000 (%) 4,079 75.3 55.1 35.8 32.6 <0.001 
    Personal income <£15,000 (%) 4,079 3.1 17.3 27.8 32.9 <0.001 
    Household income ≥£60,000 (%) 3,554 40.1 18.1 4.4 3.8 <0.001 
    Household income <£20,000 (%) 3,554 2.0 14.2 26.9 35.0 <0.001 
    Administrative grade (%) 4,090 76.9 47.6 16.9 14.4 <0.001 
    Father’s social class I/II (%) 2,838 82.9 67.9 70.0 64.3 0.048 
    Married/cohabiting 4,080 87.6 84.6 75.5 72.0 <0.001 
    Partner in paid work 2,507 74.3 71.3 68.7 68.9 0.213 
    No. of household members 4,090 2.54 2.43 2.12 1.94 <0.001 
Women (n1,509 85 787 385 252  
    Diabetes (%) 1,509 5.3 4.8 7.9 6.3 0.109 
    Impaired glucose tolerance (%) 1,255 10.1 13.8 14.4 15.3 0.409 
    Impaired fasting glucose (%) 1,255 2.5 1.2 1.4 2.5 0.841 
    Insulin resistance (%) 1,380 17.7 18.1 24.3 30.8 <0.001 
    Obesity (%) 1,355 17.7 30.0 37.1 46.5 <0.001 
    Dyslipidemia (%) 1,509 12.9 15.3 21.8 23.9 0.001 
    Hypertension (%) 1,509 21.3 24.8 27.7 39.3 <0.001 
    Metabolic syndrome (%) 1,509 5.7 9.0 14.4 20.1 <0.001 
    Fasting glucose (mmol/l)† 1,390 4.89 4.88 4.92 4.93 0.194 
    Postchallenge glucose (mmol/l)† 1,258 5.94 5.92 5.93 6.10 0.358 
    HOMA score† 1,380 1.35 1.41 1.58 1.70 <0.001 
    Higher education (%) 1,393 68.1 35.0 17.3 15.2 <0.001 
    Personal income ≥£25,000 (%) 1,498 50.7 30.9 11.9 7.2 <0.001 
    Personal income <£15,000 (%) 1,498 30.4 39.3 54.7 57.1 <0.001 
    Household income ≥£60,000 (%) 1,333 57.3 13.9 3.2 2.1 <0.001 
    Household income <£20,000 (%) 1,333 7.4 25.5 51.6 64.6 <0.001 
    Administrative grade (%) 1,509 71.0 22.1 2.3 0.8 <0.001 
    Father’s social class I/II (%) 988 85.7 69.7 60.6 53.8 <0.001 
    Married/cohabiting 1,505 67.6 63.2 50.6 46.7 <0.001 
    Partner in paid work 645 90.5 93.8 89.7 89.3 0.560 
    No. of household members 1,509 2.15 1.58 1.29 1.32 <0.001 
*

χ2 tests for trend. †Geometric mean in participants without diabetes; Ptrend based on log-transformed normalized variables.

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