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Table 1—

Clinical characteristics of the type 2 diabetic population and the control group

CharacteristicType 2 diabetesControl subjects
n 973 231 
Age (years) 66 ± 11 52 ± 17 
Male sex 47 38 
Caucasian 97 100 
Smoker 19 30 
BMI (kg/m229 ± 5 27 ± 5 
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 146 ± 20 144 ± 22 
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 81 ± 10 82 ± 11 
Diabetes duration (years) 4.2 (1.6–8.3) — 
A1C (%) 7.0 ± 1.3 Ref. 
Creatinine (μmol/l) 96 ± 20 Ref. 
Creatinine clearance (Cockroft-formula) (ml/min) 76 ± 27 Ref. 
Urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio 1.47 (0.8–4.1) Ref. 
Total cholesterol (mmol/l) 5.2 ± 1.0 Ref. 
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 1.3 ± 0.3 Ref. 
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 2.9 ± 0.9 Ref. 
Triglycerides (mmol/l) 2.3 ± 1.3 Ref. 
Microvascular disease 49 — 
Macrovascular disease 39 — 
Skin autofluorescence (total group) (AU) 2.79 ± 0.8 2.14 ± 0.6 
    40–49 years (n = 64; n = 44)* 2.17 ± 0.5† 1.84 ± 0.4 
    50–59 years (n = 199; n = 47)* 2.57 ± 0.7† 2.12 ± 0.3 
    60–69 years (n = 278; n = 32)* 2.69 ± 0.7 2.50 ± 0.6 
    70–79 years (n = 307; n = 37)* 3.04 ± 0.8† 2.76 ± 0.6 
    >80 years (n = 108; n = 7)* 3.17 ± 0.7 2.89 ± 0.5 
CharacteristicType 2 diabetesControl subjects
n 973 231 
Age (years) 66 ± 11 52 ± 17 
Male sex 47 38 
Caucasian 97 100 
Smoker 19 30 
BMI (kg/m229 ± 5 27 ± 5 
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 146 ± 20 144 ± 22 
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 81 ± 10 82 ± 11 
Diabetes duration (years) 4.2 (1.6–8.3) — 
A1C (%) 7.0 ± 1.3 Ref. 
Creatinine (μmol/l) 96 ± 20 Ref. 
Creatinine clearance (Cockroft-formula) (ml/min) 76 ± 27 Ref. 
Urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio 1.47 (0.8–4.1) Ref. 
Total cholesterol (mmol/l) 5.2 ± 1.0 Ref. 
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 1.3 ± 0.3 Ref. 
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 2.9 ± 0.9 Ref. 
Triglycerides (mmol/l) 2.3 ± 1.3 Ref. 
Microvascular disease 49 — 
Macrovascular disease 39 — 
Skin autofluorescence (total group) (AU) 2.79 ± 0.8 2.14 ± 0.6 
    40–49 years (n = 64; n = 44)* 2.17 ± 0.5† 1.84 ± 0.4 
    50–59 years (n = 199; n = 47)* 2.57 ± 0.7† 2.12 ± 0.3 
    60–69 years (n = 278; n = 32)* 2.69 ± 0.7 2.50 ± 0.6 
    70–79 years (n = 307; n = 37)* 3.04 ± 0.8† 2.76 ± 0.6 
    >80 years (n = 108; n = 7)* 3.17 ± 0.7 2.89 ± 0.5 

Data are percent, means ± SD, or median (interquartile range). Reference (Ref.) values of the laboratory: A1C 4.0–6.0%, creatinine 70–110 μmol/l, creatinine clearance (Cockroft-formula) 80–120 ml/min, urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio 0–2.5, total cholesterol 3.5–5.0 mmol/l, HDL cholesterol 0.9–1.7 mmol/l, LDL cholesterol 3.6–4.4 mmol/l, and triglycerides 0.6–2.2 mmol/l.

*

First n represents the number of type 2 diabetic patients, second n represents the number of control subjects per age category. †P < 0.01 (t test in horizontal direction, per age category).

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