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Table 2—

Prevalence and prevalence odds ratios with 95% CIs for adverse and early adverse outcome in quintiles of first-trimester A1C exposure level for all pregnancies and separately for first pregnancies

Good outcomes (n)Adverse outcomes (n)Entire cohort (n = 573)
Subcohort (n = 301)
Prevalence of adverse outcomeCrudeAdjustedCrudeAdjusted
Dependent variables for adverse pregnancy outcome        
    1st quintile A1C: ≤7.0% (ref.)* 153 20 12 (7.6–17) 1 (—) 1 (—) 1 (—) 1 (—) 
    2nd quintile A1C: 7.1–7.8% 93 19 17 (11–25) 1.6 (0.8–3.1) 1.8 (0.8–3.9) 1.4 (0.6–3.4) 1.2 (0.4–3.5) 
    3rd quintile A1C: 7.9–8.9% 87 20 19 (12–27) 1.8 (0.9–3.5) 2.1 (1.0–4.5) 2.3 (0.9–5.9) 2.3 (0.8–7.1) 
    4th quintile A1C: 9.0–10.2% 38 20 35 (24–47) 4.0 (2.0–8.2) 4.2 (1.8–9.7) 2.6 (1.0–6.4) 2.0 (0.6–6.3) 
    5th quintile A1C: ≥10.3% 19 79 (60–91) 29.1 (9.8–86.4) 30.3 (8.6–106) 19.3 (5.2–71.4) 16.0 (3.2–78.9) 
    White class B-C (ref.)     1 (—)  1 (—) 
    White class D-F     1.1 (0.6–1.9)  1.5 (0.7–3.3) 
    Nonsmoking (ref.)     1 (—)  1 (—) 
    Smoking     1.1 (0.6–2.0)  0.9 (0.4–2.0) 
Dependent variables for early adverse pregnancy outcome        
    1st quintile A1C: ≤7.2% (ref.) 178 18 9 (5.6–14) 1 (—) 1 (—) 1 (—) 1 (—) 
    2nd quintile A1C: 7.3–7.9% 77 17 18 (12–27) 2.2 (1.1–4.5) 2.7 (1.2–6.1) 1.6 (0.6–4.3) 1.4 (0.4–5.1) 
    3rd quintile A1C: 8.0–9.0% 87 16 16 (10–24) 1.8 (0.9–3.7) 2.2 (0.9–5.1) 2.7 (1.0–7.6) 3.5 (1.0–12.1) 
    4th quintile A1C: 9.1–10.2% 29 17 37 (25–51) 5.8 (2.7–12.5) 6.7 (2.8–16.5) 2.3 (0.8–6.5) 1.9 (0.5–7.9) 
    5th quintile A1C: ≥10.3% 17 77 (57–90) 33.6 (11.1–101) 35.0 (9.5–129) 48.1 (8.9–259) 70 (6.6–742) 
    White class B-C (ref.)     1 (—)  1 (—) 
    White class D-F     0.9 (0.5–1.7)  1.2 (0.4–3.1) 
    Nonsmoking (ref.)     1 (—)  1 (—) 
    Smoking     1.1 (0.6–2.0)  0.7 (0.3–2.0) 
Good outcomes (n)Adverse outcomes (n)Entire cohort (n = 573)
Subcohort (n = 301)
Prevalence of adverse outcomeCrudeAdjustedCrudeAdjusted
Dependent variables for adverse pregnancy outcome        
    1st quintile A1C: ≤7.0% (ref.)* 153 20 12 (7.6–17) 1 (—) 1 (—) 1 (—) 1 (—) 
    2nd quintile A1C: 7.1–7.8% 93 19 17 (11–25) 1.6 (0.8–3.1) 1.8 (0.8–3.9) 1.4 (0.6–3.4) 1.2 (0.4–3.5) 
    3rd quintile A1C: 7.9–8.9% 87 20 19 (12–27) 1.8 (0.9–3.5) 2.1 (1.0–4.5) 2.3 (0.9–5.9) 2.3 (0.8–7.1) 
    4th quintile A1C: 9.0–10.2% 38 20 35 (24–47) 4.0 (2.0–8.2) 4.2 (1.8–9.7) 2.6 (1.0–6.4) 2.0 (0.6–6.3) 
    5th quintile A1C: ≥10.3% 19 79 (60–91) 29.1 (9.8–86.4) 30.3 (8.6–106) 19.3 (5.2–71.4) 16.0 (3.2–78.9) 
    White class B-C (ref.)     1 (—)  1 (—) 
    White class D-F     1.1 (0.6–1.9)  1.5 (0.7–3.3) 
    Nonsmoking (ref.)     1 (—)  1 (—) 
    Smoking     1.1 (0.6–2.0)  0.9 (0.4–2.0) 
Dependent variables for early adverse pregnancy outcome        
    1st quintile A1C: ≤7.2% (ref.) 178 18 9 (5.6–14) 1 (—) 1 (—) 1 (—) 1 (—) 
    2nd quintile A1C: 7.3–7.9% 77 17 18 (12–27) 2.2 (1.1–4.5) 2.7 (1.2–6.1) 1.6 (0.6–4.3) 1.4 (0.4–5.1) 
    3rd quintile A1C: 8.0–9.0% 87 16 16 (10–24) 1.8 (0.9–3.7) 2.2 (0.9–5.1) 2.7 (1.0–7.6) 3.5 (1.0–12.1) 
    4th quintile A1C: 9.1–10.2% 29 17 37 (25–51) 5.8 (2.7–12.5) 6.7 (2.8–16.5) 2.3 (0.8–6.5) 1.9 (0.5–7.9) 
    5th quintile A1C: ≥10.3% 17 77 (57–90) 33.6 (11.1–101) 35.0 (9.5–129) 48.1 (8.9–259) 70 (6.6–742) 
    White class B-C (ref.)     1 (—)  1 (—) 
    White class D-F     0.9 (0.5–1.7)  1.2 (0.4–3.1) 
    Nonsmoking (ref.)     1 (—)  1 (—) 
    Smoking     1.1 (0.6–2.0)  0.7 (0.3–2.0) 

Data are OR (95% CI) except for prevalence of adverse outcome, which are % (95 % CI). Maternal White class and smoking are included in the adjusted analyses. The quintile values refer to cutoff values defined among adverse

(*)

and early adverse

(†)

outcomes in the entire cohort.

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