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Table 1—

Baseline risk factor levels for CAD in both sexes, by first event, EDC 10-year follow-up

VariableNo CADAnginaECG ischemiaHard CADTotal CAD
n 495 49 17 42 108 
Sex (% men) 50.1 49.0 35.3 61.9 51.9 
Age (years) 25.9 ± 7.3 33.4 ± 6.2 32.0 ± 9.1 32.9 ± 6.6 33.0 ± 6.8 
Duration (years) 17.6 ± 6.9 25.1 ± 6.5 23.4 ± 8.8 25.4 ± 6.4 24.9 ± 6.9 
HbA1 (%) 10.4 ± 1.8 9.9 ± 1.9 10.6 ± 1.4 10.7 ± 1.8 10.3 ± 1.8 
Insulin dose/kg BW 0.81 ± 0.25 0.71 ± 0.18 0.76 ± 0.22 0.75 ± 0.31  
Fibrinogen (mg/dl)§ 280.1 ± 87.1 305.8 ± 77.9 302.1 ± 94.6 343.3 ± 97.2 319.6 ± 89.5 
WBC × 103/mm2 6.4 ± 1.8 7.1 ± 2.2* 7.2 ± 2.4 8.1 ± 2.4 7.5 ± 2.3 
Triglycerides (mg/dl)§ 99.8 ± 82.7 113.4 ± 67.6* 145.8 ± 146.4 156.5 ± 80.1 134.4 ± 90.9 
Non-HDL cholesterol (mg/dl) 130.7 ± 38.3 151.0 ± 42.0 145.4 ± 59.7 174.7 ± 48.5 159.2 ± 48.8 
LDL cholesterol (mg/dl) 111.0 ± 30.8 125.3 ± 32.3 119.9 ± 53.0 147.0 ± 44.0 132.4 ± 41.8 
HDL cholesterol (mg/dl) 54.8 ± 12.2 50.9 ± 13.0* 51.3 ± 12.5 48.3 ± 9.8 50.0 ± 11.8 
ApoA1/HDL cholesterol 2.6 ± 0.5 2.8 ± 0.6* 2.9 ± 0.6* 2.9 ± 0.5 2.9 ± 0.5 
Serum creatinine (mg/dl)§ 0.96 ± 0.9 1.03 ± 0.5* 1.1 ± 1.3 1.6 ± 1.6 1.3 ± 1.2 
Log median AER (μg/min)§ 3.2 ± 1.8 4.2 ± 2.1 3.8 ± 2.3 5.9 ± 2.2 4.8 ± 2.3 
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 111.1 ± 13.2 118.5 ± 14.1 113.8 ± 18.7 127.5 ± 21.1 121.3 ± 18.5 
Corrected QT interval 407.1 ± 30.0 414.1 ± 25.9 418.0 ± 20.8 412.5 ± 29.6 414.1 ± 26.5* 
Physical activity (kcal/week)§ 2,790.9 ± 2,999.8 1,779.2 ± 2,176.4 2,288.6 ± 2,412.7 1,917.4 ± 1,766.7 1,916.9 ± 2,053.6 
Waist-to-hip ratio 0.82 ± 0.07 0.84 ± 0.08* 0.82 ± 0.08 0.86 ± 0.07 0.85 ± 0.07 
eGDR (mg · kg−1 · min−1)§ 8.1 ± 1.8 7.3 ± 2.0 7.8 ± 1.9 6.4 ± 1.9 7.0 ± 2.0 
BDI§ 6.8 ± 6.2 9.7 ± 7.1 3.9 ± 4.6 7.7 ± 5.7 8.1 ± 6.5* 
Smoke ever (%) 32.8 50.0* 56.3 59.5 54.7 
Hypertension (%) 9.9 34.7 11.8 42.9 34.3 
DSP (%) 20.3 61.2 35.3 50.0 52.8 
E/I <1.10 (%) 12.9 32.6 33.3* 47.1 37.9 
ON (%) 17.2 38.8 23.5 69.0 48.1 
MA or ON (%) 38.8 69.4 41.2 85.7 71.3 
ABI <0.8 or ABD 75+ (%) 6.4 14.3 17.63 26.8 19.6 
eGDR <6.22 (mg · kg−1 · min−1) (%) 14.1 22.4 18.8 56.1 34.9 
VariableNo CADAnginaECG ischemiaHard CADTotal CAD
n 495 49 17 42 108 
Sex (% men) 50.1 49.0 35.3 61.9 51.9 
Age (years) 25.9 ± 7.3 33.4 ± 6.2 32.0 ± 9.1 32.9 ± 6.6 33.0 ± 6.8 
Duration (years) 17.6 ± 6.9 25.1 ± 6.5 23.4 ± 8.8 25.4 ± 6.4 24.9 ± 6.9 
HbA1 (%) 10.4 ± 1.8 9.9 ± 1.9 10.6 ± 1.4 10.7 ± 1.8 10.3 ± 1.8 
Insulin dose/kg BW 0.81 ± 0.25 0.71 ± 0.18 0.76 ± 0.22 0.75 ± 0.31  
Fibrinogen (mg/dl)§ 280.1 ± 87.1 305.8 ± 77.9 302.1 ± 94.6 343.3 ± 97.2 319.6 ± 89.5 
WBC × 103/mm2 6.4 ± 1.8 7.1 ± 2.2* 7.2 ± 2.4 8.1 ± 2.4 7.5 ± 2.3 
Triglycerides (mg/dl)§ 99.8 ± 82.7 113.4 ± 67.6* 145.8 ± 146.4 156.5 ± 80.1 134.4 ± 90.9 
Non-HDL cholesterol (mg/dl) 130.7 ± 38.3 151.0 ± 42.0 145.4 ± 59.7 174.7 ± 48.5 159.2 ± 48.8 
LDL cholesterol (mg/dl) 111.0 ± 30.8 125.3 ± 32.3 119.9 ± 53.0 147.0 ± 44.0 132.4 ± 41.8 
HDL cholesterol (mg/dl) 54.8 ± 12.2 50.9 ± 13.0* 51.3 ± 12.5 48.3 ± 9.8 50.0 ± 11.8 
ApoA1/HDL cholesterol 2.6 ± 0.5 2.8 ± 0.6* 2.9 ± 0.6* 2.9 ± 0.5 2.9 ± 0.5 
Serum creatinine (mg/dl)§ 0.96 ± 0.9 1.03 ± 0.5* 1.1 ± 1.3 1.6 ± 1.6 1.3 ± 1.2 
Log median AER (μg/min)§ 3.2 ± 1.8 4.2 ± 2.1 3.8 ± 2.3 5.9 ± 2.2 4.8 ± 2.3 
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 111.1 ± 13.2 118.5 ± 14.1 113.8 ± 18.7 127.5 ± 21.1 121.3 ± 18.5 
Corrected QT interval 407.1 ± 30.0 414.1 ± 25.9 418.0 ± 20.8 412.5 ± 29.6 414.1 ± 26.5* 
Physical activity (kcal/week)§ 2,790.9 ± 2,999.8 1,779.2 ± 2,176.4 2,288.6 ± 2,412.7 1,917.4 ± 1,766.7 1,916.9 ± 2,053.6 
Waist-to-hip ratio 0.82 ± 0.07 0.84 ± 0.08* 0.82 ± 0.08 0.86 ± 0.07 0.85 ± 0.07 
eGDR (mg · kg−1 · min−1)§ 8.1 ± 1.8 7.3 ± 2.0 7.8 ± 1.9 6.4 ± 1.9 7.0 ± 2.0 
BDI§ 6.8 ± 6.2 9.7 ± 7.1 3.9 ± 4.6 7.7 ± 5.7 8.1 ± 6.5* 
Smoke ever (%) 32.8 50.0* 56.3 59.5 54.7 
Hypertension (%) 9.9 34.7 11.8 42.9 34.3 
DSP (%) 20.3 61.2 35.3 50.0 52.8 
E/I <1.10 (%) 12.9 32.6 33.3* 47.1 37.9 
ON (%) 17.2 38.8 23.5 69.0 48.1 
MA or ON (%) 38.8 69.4 41.2 85.7 71.3 
ABI <0.8 or ABD 75+ (%) 6.4 14.3 17.63 26.8 19.6 
eGDR <6.22 (mg · kg−1 · min−1) (%) 14.1 22.4 18.8 56.1 34.9 

Data are means ± SD or prevalence (%). Comparisons with no CAD:

*

P < 0.05;

P < 0.01;

P < 0.001.

§

Mann-Whitney U test;

Fisher’s exact test;

log transformed before student’s t test.

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