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Table 1—

Post hoc testing of ANOVA results

PrecontemplationContemplationPreparationActionMaintenance
Type 1 diabetes (n = 112)      
 Eating-related factors      
  Calories from fat (%) 37.7*† 40.3† 40.2† 34.6*† 33.5* 
  Daily vegetable servings 2.1*† 1.67† 1.4† 2.3*† 2.5* 
Type 2 diabetes (n = 126)      
 Demographics (%)      
  Sex      
   Men 16.7 31.5 18.5 7.4 25.9 
   Women 6.9 18.1 33.3 4.2 37.5 
  Marital status      
   Married 14.5 21.7 18.1 7.2 38.6 
   Lives alone 4.7 27.9 44.2 2.3 20.9 
 Eating-related factors      
  Calories fat (%) 39.0*† 42.8† 39.9† 33.4* 34.5* 
  Daily vegetable servings 1.4* 1.5* 2.0*† 2.0*† 2.3† 
 Psychosocial factors      
  Diabetes quality of life 61.6* 61.9* 60.5* 47.7† 68.8‡ 
  General social support 3.8*†‡ 4.3‡ 3.5* 3.3*§ 4.2‡§ 
Type 2 diabetes oral antihyperglycemics  (n = 475)      
 Demographics      
  Age 54.5*† 53.8† 55.3*† 57.8*‡ 59.8‡ 
  Sex (%)      
   Men 14.7 24.1 26.9 4.9 29.4 
   Women 4.3 22.6 26.5 7.4 39.1 
 Eating-related factors      
  BMI 33.3* 35.6† 34.5*† 34.0*† 33.4* 
  Calories fat (%) 39.9* 39.9* 39.6* 34.7† 33.2† 
  Daily vegetable servings 2.09*† 1.6* 1.9*† 2.3†‡ 2.4‡ 
  Daily fruit servings 1.3* 1.7*† 1.5* 1.8*† 1.9† 
 Health care utilization (%)      
  Past diabetes education      
   Yes 8.5 18.5 25.9 5.8 41.3 
   No 10.5 26.6 27.3 6.3 29.4 
  Smokes cigarettes      
   Yes 18.9 32.1 17.0 5.7 26.4 
   No 8.5 22.3 28.0 6.2 35.1 
 Psychosocial factors      
  Diabetes quality of life 69.5* 65.3†‡ 64.5† 69.6*‡ 70.4* 
  General quality of life 20.4*‡ 18.2† 18.7*† 18.3*†‡ 20.6‡ 
  Nonsupportive family behaviors 0.8*† 0.9* 0.9* 0.9*† 0.7† 
  Daily stress level 2.5*† 3.0* 2.8* 2.4*† 2.3† 
PrecontemplationContemplationPreparationActionMaintenance
Type 1 diabetes (n = 112)      
 Eating-related factors      
  Calories from fat (%) 37.7*† 40.3† 40.2† 34.6*† 33.5* 
  Daily vegetable servings 2.1*† 1.67† 1.4† 2.3*† 2.5* 
Type 2 diabetes (n = 126)      
 Demographics (%)      
  Sex      
   Men 16.7 31.5 18.5 7.4 25.9 
   Women 6.9 18.1 33.3 4.2 37.5 
  Marital status      
   Married 14.5 21.7 18.1 7.2 38.6 
   Lives alone 4.7 27.9 44.2 2.3 20.9 
 Eating-related factors      
  Calories fat (%) 39.0*† 42.8† 39.9† 33.4* 34.5* 
  Daily vegetable servings 1.4* 1.5* 2.0*† 2.0*† 2.3† 
 Psychosocial factors      
  Diabetes quality of life 61.6* 61.9* 60.5* 47.7† 68.8‡ 
  General social support 3.8*†‡ 4.3‡ 3.5* 3.3*§ 4.2‡§ 
Type 2 diabetes oral antihyperglycemics  (n = 475)      
 Demographics      
  Age 54.5*† 53.8† 55.3*† 57.8*‡ 59.8‡ 
  Sex (%)      
   Men 14.7 24.1 26.9 4.9 29.4 
   Women 4.3 22.6 26.5 7.4 39.1 
 Eating-related factors      
  BMI 33.3* 35.6† 34.5*† 34.0*† 33.4* 
  Calories fat (%) 39.9* 39.9* 39.6* 34.7† 33.2† 
  Daily vegetable servings 2.09*† 1.6* 1.9*† 2.3†‡ 2.4‡ 
  Daily fruit servings 1.3* 1.7*† 1.5* 1.8*† 1.9† 
 Health care utilization (%)      
  Past diabetes education      
   Yes 8.5 18.5 25.9 5.8 41.3 
   No 10.5 26.6 27.3 6.3 29.4 
  Smokes cigarettes      
   Yes 18.9 32.1 17.0 5.7 26.4 
   No 8.5 22.3 28.0 6.2 35.1 
 Psychosocial factors      
  Diabetes quality of life 69.5* 65.3†‡ 64.5† 69.6*‡ 70.4* 
  General quality of life 20.4*‡ 18.2† 18.7*† 18.3*†‡ 20.6‡ 
  Nonsupportive family behaviors 0.8*† 0.9* 0.9* 0.9*† 0.7† 
  Daily stress level 2.5*† 3.0* 2.8* 2.4*† 2.3† 

For each measure, numbers with different symbols are significantly different.

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