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Table 1—

Descriptive characteristics of Singapore population by sex and ethnic group

ChineseMalayIndian
Men    
    n 1,263 360 286 
    Age (years) 38.2 ± 12.3 39.6 ± 12.7 41.3 ± 12.1 
    BMI (kg/m223.5 ± 3.7 24.7 ± 4.0 24.6 ± 4.0 
    Total cholesterol (mmol/l) 5.52 ± 1.04 5.88 ± 1.13 5.72 ± 1.17 
    Triglycerides (mmol//l) 1.69 ± 1.55 2.00 ± 1.59 2.08 ± 1.78 
    Current smoker (%) 298 (23.4) 162 (45.0) 87 (30.4) 
    Alcohol user (%) 749 (59.3) 44 (12.2) 149 (52.1) 
    Diabetes (%)*    
        Previously diagnosed subjects 38 (3.0) 15 (4.2) 24 (8.4) 
        Total (newly diagnosed and known) 91 (7.2) 39 (10.9) 52 (18.2) 
    PLIN polymorphisms    
        11482G→A (A allele frequency) 0.42 0.43 0.31 
        14995A→T (T allele frequency) 0.44 0.44 0.34 
    Dietary intake    
        Total fat (% energy) 26.6 ± 5.3 28.1 ± 6.8 27.5 ± 5.5 
        SFAs (% energy) 10.5 ± 2.5 12.1 ± 3.6 11.4 ± 3.0 
        PUFAs (% energy) 4.9 ± 1.7 4.5 ± 1.8 5.5 ± 2.2 
        MUFAs (% energy) 9.3 ± 2.3 9.2 ± 2.7 8.3 ± 2.3 
        Carbohydrate (% energy) 60.0 ± 6.3 59.9 ± 7.5 60.6 ± 6.2 
Women    
    n 1,500 386 312 
    Age (years) 37.8 ± 12.2 38.4 ± 12.7 40.0 ± 12.1 
    BMI (kg/m222.1 ± 3.6 26.3 ± 5.6 25.6 ± 5.0 
    Total cholesterol (mmol/l) 5.33 ± 1.05 5.73 ± 1.17 5.33 ± 1.03 
    Triglycerides (mmol//l) 1.16 ± 0.75 1.39 ± 0.88 1.33 ± 0.68 
    Current smoker (%) 45 (3.0) 15 (3.8) 1 (0.3) 
    Alcohol user (%) 494 (32.9) 12 (3.1) 55 (17.6) 
    Diabetes (%)*    
        Previously diagnosed subjects 26 (1.7) 22 (5.7) 22 (7.1) 
        Total (newly diagnosed and known) 99 (6.6) 57 (14.8) 54 (17.4) 
    PLIN polymorphisms    
        11482G→A (A allele frequency) 0.41 0.45 0.34 
        14995A→T (T allele frequency) 0.44 0.45 0.38 
    Dietary intake    
        Total fat (% energy) 26.9 ± 5.4 27.8 ± 5.2 28.5 ± 5.8 
        SFAs (% energy) 10.1 ± 2.5 11.5 ± 2.8 11.7 ± 3.0 
        PUFAs (% energy) 5.6 ± 2.2 5.2 ± 2.2 6.3 ± 3.0 
        MUFAs (% energy) 9.3 ± 2.4 9.1 ± 2.4 8.2 ± 2.3 
        Carbohydrate (% energy) 59.1 ± 6.4 59.2 ± 5.8 59.4 ± 6.2 
ChineseMalayIndian
Men    
    n 1,263 360 286 
    Age (years) 38.2 ± 12.3 39.6 ± 12.7 41.3 ± 12.1 
    BMI (kg/m223.5 ± 3.7 24.7 ± 4.0 24.6 ± 4.0 
    Total cholesterol (mmol/l) 5.52 ± 1.04 5.88 ± 1.13 5.72 ± 1.17 
    Triglycerides (mmol//l) 1.69 ± 1.55 2.00 ± 1.59 2.08 ± 1.78 
    Current smoker (%) 298 (23.4) 162 (45.0) 87 (30.4) 
    Alcohol user (%) 749 (59.3) 44 (12.2) 149 (52.1) 
    Diabetes (%)*    
        Previously diagnosed subjects 38 (3.0) 15 (4.2) 24 (8.4) 
        Total (newly diagnosed and known) 91 (7.2) 39 (10.9) 52 (18.2) 
    PLIN polymorphisms    
        11482G→A (A allele frequency) 0.42 0.43 0.31 
        14995A→T (T allele frequency) 0.44 0.44 0.34 
    Dietary intake    
        Total fat (% energy) 26.6 ± 5.3 28.1 ± 6.8 27.5 ± 5.5 
        SFAs (% energy) 10.5 ± 2.5 12.1 ± 3.6 11.4 ± 3.0 
        PUFAs (% energy) 4.9 ± 1.7 4.5 ± 1.8 5.5 ± 2.2 
        MUFAs (% energy) 9.3 ± 2.3 9.2 ± 2.7 8.3 ± 2.3 
        Carbohydrate (% energy) 60.0 ± 6.3 59.9 ± 7.5 60.6 ± 6.2 
Women    
    n 1,500 386 312 
    Age (years) 37.8 ± 12.2 38.4 ± 12.7 40.0 ± 12.1 
    BMI (kg/m222.1 ± 3.6 26.3 ± 5.6 25.6 ± 5.0 
    Total cholesterol (mmol/l) 5.33 ± 1.05 5.73 ± 1.17 5.33 ± 1.03 
    Triglycerides (mmol//l) 1.16 ± 0.75 1.39 ± 0.88 1.33 ± 0.68 
    Current smoker (%) 45 (3.0) 15 (3.8) 1 (0.3) 
    Alcohol user (%) 494 (32.9) 12 (3.1) 55 (17.6) 
    Diabetes (%)*    
        Previously diagnosed subjects 26 (1.7) 22 (5.7) 22 (7.1) 
        Total (newly diagnosed and known) 99 (6.6) 57 (14.8) 54 (17.4) 
    PLIN polymorphisms    
        11482G→A (A allele frequency) 0.41 0.45 0.34 
        14995A→T (T allele frequency) 0.44 0.45 0.38 
    Dietary intake    
        Total fat (% energy) 26.9 ± 5.4 27.8 ± 5.2 28.5 ± 5.8 
        SFAs (% energy) 10.1 ± 2.5 11.5 ± 2.8 11.7 ± 3.0 
        PUFAs (% energy) 5.6 ± 2.2 5.2 ± 2.2 6.3 ± 3.0 
        MUFAs (% energy) 9.3 ± 2.4 9.1 ± 2.4 8.2 ± 2.3 
        Carbohydrate (% energy) 59.1 ± 6.4 59.2 ± 5.8 59.4 ± 6.2 

Data are means ± SD for continuous variables or n cases (% prevalence) for categorical variables.

*

Prevalence of diabetes was estimated considering both known diabetes and newly diagnosed diabetes according to the biochemical analysis.

Frequencies for the minor alleles were statistically lower (P < 0.01) in Indians than in Chinese or Malays. No statistically significant differences were found between Chinese and Malays. Haplotype frequencies for the whole population were 0.53 GA, 0.35 AT, 0.07 GT, and 0.04 AA.

Diet was determined in a systematically selected (one in every two) random sample of the initial participants. After additional exclusion of 73 previously diagnosed diabetic subjects, the final number was 2,154 participants.

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