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Table 1—

Characteristics of 11 studies among African Americans and non-Hispanic whites

Study group (ref. no.)Non-Hispanic whites
African Americans
SiteStudy design
nAge (years)A1C (%)nAge (years)A1C (%)
Bell et al. (21)* 105 55 ± 15 7.9 ± 1.7 103 54 ± 14 9.1 ± 2.6 Medical record data from outpatient clinics across NC Retrospective chart review 
Bonds et al. (20)* 144 62 ± 8 7.4 ± 1.8 102 61 ± 7 8.0 ± 2.0 IRAS cohort in CO, TX, and two sites in CA Prospective cohort study 
Brown et al. (23) 2,787 61 ± 13 7.8 ± 1.7 965 59 ± 13 8.2 ± 2.1 TRIAD study of diabetes in managed care, nationwide Prospective cohort study with cross-sectional analysis 
Cook et al. (32) 328 54 ± 11 8.6 ± 1.8 4,014 53 ± 13 9.3 ± 2.5 Registry data from outpatient diabetes clinic in GA Retrospective chart review 
de Rekeneire et al. (31) 194 74 ± 3 7.4 ± 1.2 274 74 ± 3 8.4 ± 1.7 Health ABC study in PA and TN Prospective cohort study 
Gary et al. (12) 374 ≥30 8.5 ± 2.2 732 ≥30 9.1 ± 2.9 Medical claims from university-affiliated managed care organization on east coast Cross-sectional study of average A1C 
Harris et al. (22)* 486 ≥20 7.6 ± 1.9 335 ≥20 8.1 ± 2.2 NHANES III data Cross-sectional study 
Karter et al. (9) 40,025 61 ± 13 8.4 ± 1.8 8,496 59 ± 13 8.9 ± 1.8 Northern California Kaiser Permanente patients Prospective cohort study 
Sharma and Pavlik (33)* 111 63 ± 13 9.4 ± 2.9 209 64 ± 33 11.4 ± 2.6 Community clinic patients in TX Retrospective chart review 
Summerson et al. (34) 168 59 ± 17 7.4 ± 1.8 140 58 ± 17 7.6 ± 2.2 Academic family practice and community health center in NC Cross-sectional study 
Weatherspoon et al. (35) 279 60 ± 13 7.3 ± 1.7 249 56 ± 14 7.7 ± 2.1 Public clinics accessible to low-income patients in central FL Retrospective chart review 
Study group (ref. no.)Non-Hispanic whites
African Americans
SiteStudy design
nAge (years)A1C (%)nAge (years)A1C (%)
Bell et al. (21)* 105 55 ± 15 7.9 ± 1.7 103 54 ± 14 9.1 ± 2.6 Medical record data from outpatient clinics across NC Retrospective chart review 
Bonds et al. (20)* 144 62 ± 8 7.4 ± 1.8 102 61 ± 7 8.0 ± 2.0 IRAS cohort in CO, TX, and two sites in CA Prospective cohort study 
Brown et al. (23) 2,787 61 ± 13 7.8 ± 1.7 965 59 ± 13 8.2 ± 2.1 TRIAD study of diabetes in managed care, nationwide Prospective cohort study with cross-sectional analysis 
Cook et al. (32) 328 54 ± 11 8.6 ± 1.8 4,014 53 ± 13 9.3 ± 2.5 Registry data from outpatient diabetes clinic in GA Retrospective chart review 
de Rekeneire et al. (31) 194 74 ± 3 7.4 ± 1.2 274 74 ± 3 8.4 ± 1.7 Health ABC study in PA and TN Prospective cohort study 
Gary et al. (12) 374 ≥30 8.5 ± 2.2 732 ≥30 9.1 ± 2.9 Medical claims from university-affiliated managed care organization on east coast Cross-sectional study of average A1C 
Harris et al. (22)* 486 ≥20 7.6 ± 1.9 335 ≥20 8.1 ± 2.2 NHANES III data Cross-sectional study 
Karter et al. (9) 40,025 61 ± 13 8.4 ± 1.8 8,496 59 ± 13 8.9 ± 1.8 Northern California Kaiser Permanente patients Prospective cohort study 
Sharma and Pavlik (33)* 111 63 ± 13 9.4 ± 2.9 209 64 ± 33 11.4 ± 2.6 Community clinic patients in TX Retrospective chart review 
Summerson et al. (34) 168 59 ± 17 7.4 ± 1.8 140 58 ± 17 7.6 ± 2.2 Academic family practice and community health center in NC Cross-sectional study 
Weatherspoon et al. (35) 279 60 ± 13 7.3 ± 1.7 249 56 ± 14 7.7 ± 2.1 Public clinics accessible to low-income patients in central FL Retrospective chart review 

Data are means ± SD.

*

A1C mean (±SD) received following communication with author. ABC, Aging and Body Composition; IRAS, Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study; NHANES III, Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey; TRIAD, Translating Research Into Action for Diabetes.

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