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Table 1—

Overall comparison of medication adherence by demographic factors

Demographic characteristicsMetformin
Placebo
nPercent adherentnPercent adherent
Age (years)      
    25–44  293 65.9 302 70.1 
    45–59  519 72.5 530 77.3 
    ≥60  208 70.6 192 81.0 
    P value   0.01  0.0001 
Sex      
    Male  348 73.7 316 78.4 
    Female  672 68.4 708 74.9 
    P value   0.01  0.07 
Ethnicity/race      
    Caucasian  577 73.4 550 80.7 
    African American  209 66.4 211 67.0 
    Hispanic  150 65.0 158 73.0 
    American Indian  52 67.5 59 72.1 
    Asian  32 68.5 46 75.3 
    P value   0.008  <0.0001 
Income*      
    <$20,000  126 60.1 146 76.8 
    $20,000 to <$35,000  165 66.1 181 75.6 
    $35,000 to <$50,000  203 74.7 206 74.6 
    $50,000 to <$75,000  212 70.0 201 78.6 
    ≥$75,000  231 77.2 210 78.6 
    Refused  82 64.7 80 65.1 
    P value   <0.0001  0.01 
Marital status      
    Never married  126 67.4 127 77.8 
    Living together  29 62.4 44 75.7 
    Married  632 72.5 636 75.5 
    Separated  31 64.6 27 68.9 
    Divorced  152 67.3 145 77.2 
    Widowed  50 65.8 45 77.3 
    P value   0.09  0.72 
Education (years)      
    ≤12  258 68.8 270 76.2 
    13–16  484 69.6 497 75.1 
    ≥17  278 72.6 257 77.2 
    P value   0.33  0.66 
Demographic characteristicsMetformin
Placebo
nPercent adherentnPercent adherent
Age (years)      
    25–44  293 65.9 302 70.1 
    45–59  519 72.5 530 77.3 
    ≥60  208 70.6 192 81.0 
    P value   0.01  0.0001 
Sex      
    Male  348 73.7 316 78.4 
    Female  672 68.4 708 74.9 
    P value   0.01  0.07 
Ethnicity/race      
    Caucasian  577 73.4 550 80.7 
    African American  209 66.4 211 67.0 
    Hispanic  150 65.0 158 73.0 
    American Indian  52 67.5 59 72.1 
    Asian  32 68.5 46 75.3 
    P value   0.008  <0.0001 
Income*      
    <$20,000  126 60.1 146 76.8 
    $20,000 to <$35,000  165 66.1 181 75.6 
    $35,000 to <$50,000  203 74.7 206 74.6 
    $50,000 to <$75,000  212 70.0 201 78.6 
    ≥$75,000  231 77.2 210 78.6 
    Refused  82 64.7 80 65.1 
    P value   <0.0001  0.01 
Marital status      
    Never married  126 67.4 127 77.8 
    Living together  29 62.4 44 75.7 
    Married  632 72.5 636 75.5 
    Separated  31 64.6 27 68.9 
    Divorced  152 67.3 145 77.2 
    Widowed  50 65.8 45 77.3 
    P value   0.09  0.72 
Education (years)      
    ≤12  258 68.8 270 76.2 
    13–16  484 69.6 497 75.1 
    ≥17  278 72.6 257 77.2 
    P value   0.33  0.66 
*

The adherence difference between metformin and placebo is consistent across age, sex, ethnicity, marital status, and education. However, heterogeneity is observed for income levels (P = 0.01). Those with <$20,000 income had the biggest gap in adherence between metformin and placebo.

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