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Table 4—

Characteristics at entry according to glycemic status 3 years later in subjects who were initially normoglycemic: the DESIR study

NormoglycemicIFGType 2 diabetesP(sex adjusted)*P (sex, age, and BMI adjusted)
All      
    N 1,068 200 31   
    Percent men 46 69 58   
    Age (years) 46.6 ± 9.9 49.2 ± 9.1 47.3 ± 8.9 <0.0005  
    BMI (kg/m223.8 (21.8–26.4) 26.3 (24.2–28.5) 27.4 (23.8–31.6) <0.0005 <0.0005 
    WHR 0.843 ± 0.088 0.900 ± 0.075 0.893 ± 0.095 <0.0005 <0.0005 
    Insulin (μU/ml) 5.3 (3.8–7.5) 6.9 (4.8–9.8) 6.4 (5.2–11.2) <0.0005 <0.0005 
    Glucose (mmol/l) 5.17 ± 0.44 5.61 ± 0.39 5.50 ± 0.50 <0.0005 <0.0005 
    Iron (μmol/l) 19.3 ± 6.7 19.9 ± 6.2 19.0 ± 8.0 0.888 0.445 
    Ferritin (μg/l) 93 (42–175) 167 (102–169) 166 (68–353) <0.0005 <0.0005 
    Transferrin (g/l) 2.31 ± 0.35 2.41 ± 0.28 2.49 ± 0.33 <0.0005 <0.0005 
    CRP (mg/l) 0.85 (0.85–2.07) 1.36 (0.92–2.91) 1.66 (0.98–3.85) <0.0005 0.007 
Men      
    n 490 132 18   
    Age (years) 46.4 ± 10.2 48.2 ± 8.7 48.2 ± 8.0 0.159  
    BMI (kg/m224.7 (23.0–27.1) 26.5 (24.3–28.7) 28.1 (24.4–30.1) <0.0005 <0.0005 
    WHR 0.912 ± 0.061 0.932 ± 0.056 0.953 ± 0.066 <0.0005 0.258 
    Insulin (μU/ml) 5.4 (3.8–7.7) 6.9 (4.7–9.4) 7.3 (5.5–11.3) <0.0005 0.031 
    Glucose (mmol/l) 5.33 ± 0.41 5.64 ± 0.37 5.56 ± 0.40 <0.0005 <0.0005 
    Iron (μmol/l) 20.4 ± 6.5 20.4 ± 6.0 20.8 ± 9.1 0.969 0.881 
    Ferritin (μg/l) 169 (109–264) 209 (138–307) 270 (171–442) <0.0005 0.004 
    Transferrin (g/l) 2.26 ± 0.30 2.36 ± 0.28 2.46 ± 0.31 <0.0005 0.009 
    CRP (mg/l) 0.85 (0.85–1.89) 1.36 (0.92–2.68) 1.50 (0.92–11.7) 0.001 0.023 
Women      
    n 578 68 13   
    Age (years) 46.7 ± 9.7 51.0 ± 9.5 45.9 ± 10.1 0.002  
    BMI (kg/m223.1 (20.9–25.4) 25.7 (23.8–28.3) 27.2 (21.4–32.6) <0.0005 <0.0005 
    WHR 0.784 ± 0.061 0.838 ± 0.068 0.809 ± 0.057 <0.0005 <0.0005 
    Insulin (μU/ml) 5.1 (3.7–7.2) 7.0 (5.1–11.0) 5.5 (4.3–8.8) <0.0005 <0.0005 
    Glucose (mmol/l) 5.02 ± 0.46 5.58 ± 0.39 5.40 ± 0.39 <0.0005 <0.0005 
    Iron (μmol/l) 18.4 ± 6.8 18.9 ± 6.5 16.5 ± 5.7 0.487 0.450 
    Ferritin (μg/l) 49 (29–88) 97 (47–164) 67 (34–111) <0.0005 0.003 
    Transferrin (g/l) 2.35 ± 0.39 2.50 ± 0.27 2.54 ± 0.37 0.001 0.005 
    CRP (mg/l) 0.87 (0.85–2.19) 1.32 (0.92–3.81) 1.85 (1.38–5.57) 0.001 0.173 
NormoglycemicIFGType 2 diabetesP(sex adjusted)*P (sex, age, and BMI adjusted)
All      
    N 1,068 200 31   
    Percent men 46 69 58   
    Age (years) 46.6 ± 9.9 49.2 ± 9.1 47.3 ± 8.9 <0.0005  
    BMI (kg/m223.8 (21.8–26.4) 26.3 (24.2–28.5) 27.4 (23.8–31.6) <0.0005 <0.0005 
    WHR 0.843 ± 0.088 0.900 ± 0.075 0.893 ± 0.095 <0.0005 <0.0005 
    Insulin (μU/ml) 5.3 (3.8–7.5) 6.9 (4.8–9.8) 6.4 (5.2–11.2) <0.0005 <0.0005 
    Glucose (mmol/l) 5.17 ± 0.44 5.61 ± 0.39 5.50 ± 0.50 <0.0005 <0.0005 
    Iron (μmol/l) 19.3 ± 6.7 19.9 ± 6.2 19.0 ± 8.0 0.888 0.445 
    Ferritin (μg/l) 93 (42–175) 167 (102–169) 166 (68–353) <0.0005 <0.0005 
    Transferrin (g/l) 2.31 ± 0.35 2.41 ± 0.28 2.49 ± 0.33 <0.0005 <0.0005 
    CRP (mg/l) 0.85 (0.85–2.07) 1.36 (0.92–2.91) 1.66 (0.98–3.85) <0.0005 0.007 
Men      
    n 490 132 18   
    Age (years) 46.4 ± 10.2 48.2 ± 8.7 48.2 ± 8.0 0.159  
    BMI (kg/m224.7 (23.0–27.1) 26.5 (24.3–28.7) 28.1 (24.4–30.1) <0.0005 <0.0005 
    WHR 0.912 ± 0.061 0.932 ± 0.056 0.953 ± 0.066 <0.0005 0.258 
    Insulin (μU/ml) 5.4 (3.8–7.7) 6.9 (4.7–9.4) 7.3 (5.5–11.3) <0.0005 0.031 
    Glucose (mmol/l) 5.33 ± 0.41 5.64 ± 0.37 5.56 ± 0.40 <0.0005 <0.0005 
    Iron (μmol/l) 20.4 ± 6.5 20.4 ± 6.0 20.8 ± 9.1 0.969 0.881 
    Ferritin (μg/l) 169 (109–264) 209 (138–307) 270 (171–442) <0.0005 0.004 
    Transferrin (g/l) 2.26 ± 0.30 2.36 ± 0.28 2.46 ± 0.31 <0.0005 0.009 
    CRP (mg/l) 0.85 (0.85–1.89) 1.36 (0.92–2.68) 1.50 (0.92–11.7) 0.001 0.023 
Women      
    n 578 68 13   
    Age (years) 46.7 ± 9.7 51.0 ± 9.5 45.9 ± 10.1 0.002  
    BMI (kg/m223.1 (20.9–25.4) 25.7 (23.8–28.3) 27.2 (21.4–32.6) <0.0005 <0.0005 
    WHR 0.784 ± 0.061 0.838 ± 0.068 0.809 ± 0.057 <0.0005 <0.0005 
    Insulin (μU/ml) 5.1 (3.7–7.2) 7.0 (5.1–11.0) 5.5 (4.3–8.8) <0.0005 <0.0005 
    Glucose (mmol/l) 5.02 ± 0.46 5.58 ± 0.39 5.40 ± 0.39 <0.0005 <0.0005 
    Iron (μmol/l) 18.4 ± 6.8 18.9 ± 6.5 16.5 ± 5.7 0.487 0.450 
    Ferritin (μg/l) 49 (29–88) 97 (47–164) 67 (34–111) <0.0005 0.003 
    Transferrin (g/l) 2.35 ± 0.39 2.50 ± 0.27 2.54 ± 0.37 0.001 0.005 
    CRP (mg/l) 0.87 (0.85–2.19) 1.32 (0.92–3.81) 1.85 (1.38–5.57) 0.001 0.173 

Data are means ± SD or median (25–75%) values. For all skewed variables (BMI, insulin, ferritin, and CRP), statistics were performed on log-transformed values. Normoglycemic: fasting plasma glucose <6.1 mmol/l; IFG: fasting plasma glucose between 6.1 and 7 mmol/l; type 2 diabetes: fasting glucose ≥7.0 mmol/l or treated for diabetes.

*

Measured by ANCOVA except χ2 for the difference in sex frequency.

Measured by ANCOVA; BMI was only adjusted for sex and age.

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