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Table 2—

Univariate and multivariate association of weight loss, behavioral, and metabolic variables on lower diabetes incidence in participants in the ILS group: DPP, 1996–2001

Variables (unit change)ModelModels assessing one characteristic at a time*
R2 (%)§Multivariate model
HR (95% CI)PHR (95% CI)PR2 (%)§
Baseline variables        
    Lower weight (10 kg) 0.81 (0.75–0.86) <0.0001 3.46 0.88 (0.81–0.96) 0.003 0.82 
Higher leisure physical activity (MAQ)(5 MET hours/week) 1.00 (0.96–1.05) 0.89 0.00 1.00 (0.96–1.04) 0.98 0.00 
    Higher recreational activity (LoPAR)(20 MET hours/week) 1.12 (1.01–1.23) 0.03 0.42 1.08 (0.97–1.20) 0.16 0.19 
    Lower percent of calories from fat (5%) 0.96 (0.84–1.10) 0.57 0.03 0.91 (0.79–1.05) 0.19 0.16 
Follow-up variables        
    Weight loss (5 kg) 0.49 (0.43–0.57) <0.0001 7.55 0.42 (0.35–0.50) <0.0001 8.09 
    Higher leisure physical activity (MAQ)(5 MET hours/week) 0.95 (0.88–1.02) 0.17 0.17 0.97 (0.90–1.05) 0.50 0.04 
    Higher recreational activity (LoPAR)(5 MET hours/week) 0.99 (0.97–1.02) 0.66 0.01 0.99 (0.96–1.02) 0.45 0.05 
    Lower percent of calories from fat (5%) 0.75 (0.63–0.88) 0.0007 1.06 0.93 (0.77–1.12) 0.42 0.06 
Variables (unit change)ModelModels assessing one characteristic at a time*
R2 (%)§Multivariate model
HR (95% CI)PHR (95% CI)PR2 (%)§
Baseline variables        
    Lower weight (10 kg) 0.81 (0.75–0.86) <0.0001 3.46 0.88 (0.81–0.96) 0.003 0.82 
Higher leisure physical activity (MAQ)(5 MET hours/week) 1.00 (0.96–1.05) 0.89 0.00 1.00 (0.96–1.04) 0.98 0.00 
    Higher recreational activity (LoPAR)(20 MET hours/week) 1.12 (1.01–1.23) 0.03 0.42 1.08 (0.97–1.20) 0.16 0.19 
    Lower percent of calories from fat (5%) 0.96 (0.84–1.10) 0.57 0.03 0.91 (0.79–1.05) 0.19 0.16 
Follow-up variables        
    Weight loss (5 kg) 0.49 (0.43–0.57) <0.0001 7.55 0.42 (0.35–0.50) <0.0001 8.09 
    Higher leisure physical activity (MAQ)(5 MET hours/week) 0.95 (0.88–1.02) 0.17 0.17 0.97 (0.90–1.05) 0.50 0.04 
    Higher recreational activity (LoPAR)(5 MET hours/week) 0.99 (0.97–1.02) 0.66 0.01 0.99 (0.96–1.02) 0.45 0.05 
    Lower percent of calories from fat (5%) 0.75 (0.63–0.88) 0.0007 1.06 0.93 (0.77–1.12) 0.42 0.06 
*

Baseline proportional hazards models (1–4) include baseline and follow-up (time-dependent) variables for each characteristic and are also adjusted for baseline demographic factors (age, sex, race/ethnic group, and weight). Separate models are shown with numbers.

Multivariate proportional hazards model includes all baseline and follow-up (time-dependent) variables shown, as well as age, sex, ethnic group, HbA1c, and baseline fasting measures of insulin, glucose, and IGR.

HRs for specified unit differences: <1 indicates less diabetes at follow-up; >1 indicates more diabetes.

§

Partial R2 indicates the proportion of explained variance in predicting the development of diabetes at a specified time point. LoPAR, Low Level Physical Activity Recall questionnaire; MAQ, Modifiable Activity Questionnaire.

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