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Table 1—

Factors associated with persistent microalbuminuria in adolescents with type 1 diabetes: multiple logistic regression analysis using explanatory variables from the first ever complications assessment

At first complications assessmentCase subjects (n = 45)Compared with all others
Compared with patients with normoalbuminuria
All others (n = 929)UnivariateMultivariateR2 = 10%Always normoalbuminuric (n = 492)UnivariateMultivariateR2 = 12.8%
Age (years) 13.7 ± 2.2 13.2 ± 2.2 1 (1.0–1.2)  15.4 ± 3.2 1.1 (1.0–1.2)*  
Duration (years) 6.7 ± 3.9 5.5 ± 3.1 1.1 (1.0–1.2)*  7.5 ± 3.7 1.1 (1.0–1.2)* 1.2 (1.0–1.3) 
Cholesterol ≥5.2 mmol/l 42.5% 21.5% 2.9 (1.5–5.5) 2.2 (1.2–4.0) 14.8% 2.5 (1.2–5.0) 2.0 (0.7–5.5) 
AER <7.5 μg/min (n19 695      
AER 7.5–20 μg/min (n13 188 2.5 (1.2–5.2) 2.5 (1.2–5.2)    
AER >20 μg/min (n15 48 11.4 (4.6–21.0) 9.9 (4.6–21.0)    
BMI SD score ≥2 24% n11% 2.5 (1.2–5.1)  8.5% 8.5 (4.3–14.7)  
≥3 injections 42.5% 37.7% 1.2 (0.6–2.3)  62.2% 1.4 (0.7–2.8)  
Blood pressure >95th percentile 35.5% 21.2% 1.9 (1.0–3.7)*  5.1% 3.6 (1.5–9.0) 3.0 (0.7–12.5) 
A1C (%) 8.4 ± 1.2 8.6 ± 1.3 0.9 (0.7–1.1)  8.6 ± 1.5 1.3 (1.1–1.7) 1.3 (1.0–1.7)* 
Insulin dose (units · kg−1 · day−11.2 ± 0.3 1.1 ± 0.3 1.5 (0.6–3.8)  1.2 ± 0.4 0.9 (0.3–2.7)  
At first complications assessmentCase subjects (n = 45)Compared with all others
Compared with patients with normoalbuminuria
All others (n = 929)UnivariateMultivariateR2 = 10%Always normoalbuminuric (n = 492)UnivariateMultivariateR2 = 12.8%
Age (years) 13.7 ± 2.2 13.2 ± 2.2 1 (1.0–1.2)  15.4 ± 3.2 1.1 (1.0–1.2)*  
Duration (years) 6.7 ± 3.9 5.5 ± 3.1 1.1 (1.0–1.2)*  7.5 ± 3.7 1.1 (1.0–1.2)* 1.2 (1.0–1.3) 
Cholesterol ≥5.2 mmol/l 42.5% 21.5% 2.9 (1.5–5.5) 2.2 (1.2–4.0) 14.8% 2.5 (1.2–5.0) 2.0 (0.7–5.5) 
AER <7.5 μg/min (n19 695      
AER 7.5–20 μg/min (n13 188 2.5 (1.2–5.2) 2.5 (1.2–5.2)    
AER >20 μg/min (n15 48 11.4 (4.6–21.0) 9.9 (4.6–21.0)    
BMI SD score ≥2 24% n11% 2.5 (1.2–5.1)  8.5% 8.5 (4.3–14.7)  
≥3 injections 42.5% 37.7% 1.2 (0.6–2.3)  62.2% 1.4 (0.7–2.8)  
Blood pressure >95th percentile 35.5% 21.2% 1.9 (1.0–3.7)*  5.1% 3.6 (1.5–9.0) 3.0 (0.7–12.5) 
A1C (%) 8.4 ± 1.2 8.6 ± 1.3 0.9 (0.7–1.1)  8.6 ± 1.5 1.3 (1.1–1.7) 1.3 (1.0–1.7)* 
Insulin dose (units · kg−1 · day−11.2 ± 0.3 1.1 ± 0.3 1.5 (0.6–3.8)  1.2 ± 0.4 0.9 (0.3–2.7)  

Data are means ± SD or odds ratio (95% CI) unless otherwise indicated. Two different models were used: cases of persistent microalbuminuria were compared with1) the entire cohort (including patients with borderline microalbuminuria) and 2) patients with normoalbuminuria (AER <7.5 μg/min). The multivariate model included all explanatory variables except age (due to its colinearity with duration: correlation coefficient = 0.5) and interaction terms.

*

P < 0.01,

P < 0.05.

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