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Table 2—

Longitudinal analysis of factors associated with persistent microalbuminuria in adolescents with type 1 diabetes: results of the Cox proportional hazards regression using all available data points

Univariate analysis
Multivariate model*
Hazard ratio (95% CI)PHazard ratio (95% CI)P
Age at diagnosis 1.2 (1.1–1.3) <0.01 1.2 (1.1–1.3) <0.01 
A1C 1.4 (1.1–1.7) <0.01 1.4 (1.1–1.7) 0.01 
Blood pressure >95th percentile 2.8 (1.1–7.2) 0.03   
Cholesterol ≥5.2 mmol/l 1.9 (1.1–3.6) 0.03   
BMI SD score ≥2 2.1 (1.1–3.8) 0.02 3.6 (0.8–15.5) 0.09 
Insulin dose 2.3 (0.9–6.3) 0.1 2.7 (1.0–7.5) 0.06 
≥3 injections 1.3 (0.7–2.5) 0.4   
Univariate analysis
Multivariate model*
Hazard ratio (95% CI)PHazard ratio (95% CI)P
Age at diagnosis 1.2 (1.1–1.3) <0.01 1.2 (1.1–1.3) <0.01 
A1C 1.4 (1.1–1.7) <0.01 1.4 (1.1–1.7) 0.01 
Blood pressure >95th percentile 2.8 (1.1–7.2) 0.03   
Cholesterol ≥5.2 mmol/l 1.9 (1.1–3.6) 0.03   
BMI SD score ≥2 2.1 (1.1–3.8) 0.02 3.6 (0.8–15.5) 0.09 
Insulin dose 2.3 (0.9–6.3) 0.1 2.7 (1.0–7.5) 0.06 
≥3 injections 1.3 (0.7–2.5) 0.4   
*

The multivariate model adjusts for all explanatory variables listed in the table and interaction terms; the model of best fit includes independent predictors of persistent microalbuminuria (P < 0.1). All patients were included in this model.

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