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Table 1—

Clinical and metabolic characteristics of 4,421 Chinese type 2 diabetic patients without macrovascular disease and end-stage renal disease (eGFR <15 ml/min per 1.73 m2) at baseline

Total cohorteGFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2)
≥9060–8930–5915–29P for trend
n 4,421 2,257 1,636 457 71  
Men (%) 43.2 40.5 47.2 42.5 38.0 0.044 
Age (years) 57.6 ± 13.3 51.4 ± 12.0 62.3 ± 11.5 69.3 ± 9.9 69.3 ± 9.5 <0.001 
Duration of diabetes (years) 6.9 ± 6.3 5.6 ± 5.5 7.2 ± 6.2 11.2 ± 7.8 12.9 ± 6.8 <0.001 
Smoking (ex and current) (%) 26.7 24.2 28.9 31.3 25.7 0.001 
BMI (kg/m2      
    Women 25.1 ± 4.0 25.1 ± 4.2 25.1 ± 3.9 25.3 ± 3.8 25.1 ± 3.3 0.905 
    Men 25.0 ± 3.9 25.1 ± 4.3 25.0 ± 3.5 25.0 ± 3.5 24.1 ± 2.8 0.837 
Waist (cm)       
    Women 83.2 ± 9.9 82.2 ± 10.2 83.9 ± 9.6 85.2 ± 9.5 85.4 ± 8.9 <0.001 
    Men 88.0 ± 9.8 87.5 ± 10.4 88.3 ± 9.2 89.6 ± 9.0 85.6 ± 8.4 0.026 
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 134 ± 21 130 ± 19 137 ± 20 147 ± 22 158 ± 26 <0.001 
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 77 ± 11 77 ± 11 77 ± 11 78 ± 12 80 ± 12 0.193 
A1C (%) 7.75 ± 1.85 7.69 ± 1.88 7.78 ± 1.83 7.96 ± 1.81 7.65 ± 1.69 0.080 
Fasting plasma glucose [mmol/l (mg/dl)] 8.80 ± 3.35 (158.6 ± 60.4) 8.72 ± 3.14 (157.1 ± 56.6) 8.86 ± 3.44 (159.6 ± 62.0) 8.96 ± 3.90 (161.4 ± 70.3) 8.58 ± 3.90 (154.6 ± 70.3) 0.091 
Total cholesterol [mmol/l (mg/dl)] 5.37 ± 1.17 (207.7 ± 45.2) 5.28 ± 1.14 (204.2 ± 44.1) 5.43 ± 1.14 (210.0 ± 44.1) 5.58 ± 1.25 (215.8 ± 48.3) 5.91 ± 1.71 (228.5 ± 66.1) <0.001 
HDL cholesterol [mmol/l (mg/dl)] 1.27 ± 0.36 (49.1 ± 13.9) 1.29 ± 0.36 (49.9 ± 13.9) 1.27 ± 0.36 (49.1 ± 13.9) 1.18 ± 0.37 (45.6 ± 14.3) 1.18 ± 0.39 (45.6 ± 15.1) <0.001 
LDL cholesterol [mmol/l (mg/dl)] 3.35 ± 0.96 (129.5 ± 37.1) 3.27 ± 0.92 (126.5 ± 35.6) 3.40 ± 0.97 (131.5 ± 37.5) 3.46 ± 1.01 (133.8 ± 39.1) 3.69 ± 1.39 (142.7 ± 53.8) <0.001 
Triglycerides [mmol/l (mg/dl)] 1.33 (0.93–2.01); 117.7 (82.3–177.9) 1.23 (0.86–1.87); 108.8 (76.1–165.5) 1.37 (0.96–2.03); 121.2 (85.0–179.6) 1.77 (1.21–2.60); 156.6 (107.1–230.1) 1.84 (1.14–2.55); 162.8 (100.9–225.7) <0.001 
Serum creatinine [μmol/l (mg/dl)] 73 (61–89); 0.83 (0.69–1.01) 61 (54–72); 0.69 (0.61–0.81) 83 (72–93); 0.94 (0.81–1.05) 123 (101–142); 1.39 (1.14–1.61) 221 (195–259); 2.5 (2.21–2.93) <0.001 
Urinary albumin excretion (mg/24 h) 17 (9–77) 13 (8–37) 19 (9–72) 146 (30–923) 1,674 (521–3,337) <0.001 
Spot urinary ACR (mg/mmol) 1.74 (0.75–7.66) 1.36 (0.68–3.92) 1.85 (0.77–8.65) 13.44 (2.10–98.37) 222.58 (42.39–416.35) <0.001 
Microalbuminuria (%) 26.3 24.0 27.4 35.0 18.8 <0.001 
Macroalbuminuria (%) 12.7 5.3 12.4 41.3 78.3 <0.001 
eGFR (ml/min per 1.73 m291 (74–108) 107 (99–120) 79 (71–85) 50 (41–55) 24 (20–26) <0.001 
Presence of retinopathy (%) 22.5 15.5 23.6 46.4 66.2 <0.001 
Use of antihypertensive drugs (%) 48.3 36.6 54.2 79.0 87.3 <0.001 
Use of RAAS inhibitors (%)* 37.8 27.7 42.5 68.7 53.5 <0.001 
Use of lipid-lowering drugs (%) 22.3 18.0 22.4 39.6 47.9 <0.001 
Total cohorteGFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2)
≥9060–8930–5915–29P for trend
n 4,421 2,257 1,636 457 71  
Men (%) 43.2 40.5 47.2 42.5 38.0 0.044 
Age (years) 57.6 ± 13.3 51.4 ± 12.0 62.3 ± 11.5 69.3 ± 9.9 69.3 ± 9.5 <0.001 
Duration of diabetes (years) 6.9 ± 6.3 5.6 ± 5.5 7.2 ± 6.2 11.2 ± 7.8 12.9 ± 6.8 <0.001 
Smoking (ex and current) (%) 26.7 24.2 28.9 31.3 25.7 0.001 
BMI (kg/m2      
    Women 25.1 ± 4.0 25.1 ± 4.2 25.1 ± 3.9 25.3 ± 3.8 25.1 ± 3.3 0.905 
    Men 25.0 ± 3.9 25.1 ± 4.3 25.0 ± 3.5 25.0 ± 3.5 24.1 ± 2.8 0.837 
Waist (cm)       
    Women 83.2 ± 9.9 82.2 ± 10.2 83.9 ± 9.6 85.2 ± 9.5 85.4 ± 8.9 <0.001 
    Men 88.0 ± 9.8 87.5 ± 10.4 88.3 ± 9.2 89.6 ± 9.0 85.6 ± 8.4 0.026 
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 134 ± 21 130 ± 19 137 ± 20 147 ± 22 158 ± 26 <0.001 
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 77 ± 11 77 ± 11 77 ± 11 78 ± 12 80 ± 12 0.193 
A1C (%) 7.75 ± 1.85 7.69 ± 1.88 7.78 ± 1.83 7.96 ± 1.81 7.65 ± 1.69 0.080 
Fasting plasma glucose [mmol/l (mg/dl)] 8.80 ± 3.35 (158.6 ± 60.4) 8.72 ± 3.14 (157.1 ± 56.6) 8.86 ± 3.44 (159.6 ± 62.0) 8.96 ± 3.90 (161.4 ± 70.3) 8.58 ± 3.90 (154.6 ± 70.3) 0.091 
Total cholesterol [mmol/l (mg/dl)] 5.37 ± 1.17 (207.7 ± 45.2) 5.28 ± 1.14 (204.2 ± 44.1) 5.43 ± 1.14 (210.0 ± 44.1) 5.58 ± 1.25 (215.8 ± 48.3) 5.91 ± 1.71 (228.5 ± 66.1) <0.001 
HDL cholesterol [mmol/l (mg/dl)] 1.27 ± 0.36 (49.1 ± 13.9) 1.29 ± 0.36 (49.9 ± 13.9) 1.27 ± 0.36 (49.1 ± 13.9) 1.18 ± 0.37 (45.6 ± 14.3) 1.18 ± 0.39 (45.6 ± 15.1) <0.001 
LDL cholesterol [mmol/l (mg/dl)] 3.35 ± 0.96 (129.5 ± 37.1) 3.27 ± 0.92 (126.5 ± 35.6) 3.40 ± 0.97 (131.5 ± 37.5) 3.46 ± 1.01 (133.8 ± 39.1) 3.69 ± 1.39 (142.7 ± 53.8) <0.001 
Triglycerides [mmol/l (mg/dl)] 1.33 (0.93–2.01); 117.7 (82.3–177.9) 1.23 (0.86–1.87); 108.8 (76.1–165.5) 1.37 (0.96–2.03); 121.2 (85.0–179.6) 1.77 (1.21–2.60); 156.6 (107.1–230.1) 1.84 (1.14–2.55); 162.8 (100.9–225.7) <0.001 
Serum creatinine [μmol/l (mg/dl)] 73 (61–89); 0.83 (0.69–1.01) 61 (54–72); 0.69 (0.61–0.81) 83 (72–93); 0.94 (0.81–1.05) 123 (101–142); 1.39 (1.14–1.61) 221 (195–259); 2.5 (2.21–2.93) <0.001 
Urinary albumin excretion (mg/24 h) 17 (9–77) 13 (8–37) 19 (9–72) 146 (30–923) 1,674 (521–3,337) <0.001 
Spot urinary ACR (mg/mmol) 1.74 (0.75–7.66) 1.36 (0.68–3.92) 1.85 (0.77–8.65) 13.44 (2.10–98.37) 222.58 (42.39–416.35) <0.001 
Microalbuminuria (%) 26.3 24.0 27.4 35.0 18.8 <0.001 
Macroalbuminuria (%) 12.7 5.3 12.4 41.3 78.3 <0.001 
eGFR (ml/min per 1.73 m291 (74–108) 107 (99–120) 79 (71–85) 50 (41–55) 24 (20–26) <0.001 
Presence of retinopathy (%) 22.5 15.5 23.6 46.4 66.2 <0.001 
Use of antihypertensive drugs (%) 48.3 36.6 54.2 79.0 87.3 <0.001 
Use of RAAS inhibitors (%)* 37.8 27.7 42.5 68.7 53.5 <0.001 
Use of lipid-lowering drugs (%) 22.3 18.0 22.4 39.6 47.9 <0.001 

Data are means ± SD or median (interquartile range). Parameters were age and sex adjusted, except for age, sex, and smoking.

*

RAAS, including ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor antagonist

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