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Table 1—

Age- and sex-adjusted geometric mean levels (95% CI) of IL-6 and CRP (1,610 men and women) and ghrelin, leptin, and adiponectin (1,398 men and women) according to the presence or absence of the metabolic syndrome and components

Metabolic syndrome componentnPresentAbsentP value*
IL-6 (pg/ml)     
    Metabolic syndrome 266 3.14 (2.91–3.38) 2.31 (2.23–2.40) <0.0001 
    Hyperglycemia 300 2.59 (2.40–2.79) 2.41 (2.32–2.50) 0.095 
    High waist girth 252 3.03 (2.80–3.28) 2.35 (2.27–2.43) <0.0001 
    Hypertriglyceridemia 382 2.78 (2.60–2.97) 2.35 (2.26–2.43) <0.0001 
    Low HDL cholesterol 248 2.98 (2.75–3.23) 2.36 (2.28–2.44) <0.0001 
    Hypertension 1,113 2.60 (2.50–2.71) 2.12 (1.99–2.25) <0.0001 
CRP (mg/l)     
    Metabolic syndrome 266 3.36 (2.98–3.78) 1.62 (1.53–1.72) <0.0001 
    Hyperglycemia 300 2.26 (2.00–2.56) 1.73 (1.63–1.84) 0.002 
    High waist girth 252 3.10 (2.72–3.54) 1.65 (1.56–1.75) <0.0001 
    Hypertriglyceridemia 382 2.70 (2.42–3.00) 1.61 (1.52–1.71) <0.0001 
    Low HDL cholesterol 248 2.71 (2.37–3.10) 1.70 (1.60–1.80) <0.0001 
    Hypertension 1,113 2.09 (1.95–2.23) 1.34 (1.21–1.49) <0.0001 
Ghrelin (pg/ml)     
    Metabolic syndrome 245 1,255.5 (1,200.4–1,313.0) 1,363.9 (1,331.2–1,397.4) 0.004 
    Hyperglycemia 297 1,332.0 (1,270.4–1,397.0) 1,343.1 (1,310.7–1,376.3) 0.77 
    High waist girth 225 1,247.1 (1,182.0–1,315.8) 1,359.9 (1,327.9–1,392.6) 0.004 
    Hypertriglyceridemia 331 1,281.9 (1,226.2–1,340.2) 1,359.6 (1,326.2–1,393.8) 0.023 
    Low HDL cholesterol 227 1,212.5 (1,149.7–1,278.8) 1,367.5 (1,335.4–1,400.3) <0.0001 
    Hypertension 1,048 1,332.6 (1,298.7–1,367.3) 1,365.5 (1,304.4–1,429.4) 0.37 
Leptin (ng/ml)     
    Metabolic syndrome 245 13.77 (12.62–15.04) 7.60 (7.30–7.91) <0.0001 
    Hyperglycemia 297 11.23 (10.45–12.07) 8.45 (8.14–8.77) <0.0001 
    High waist girth 225 17.84 (16.57–19.19) 7.84 (7.59–8.10) <0.0001 
    Hypertriglyceridemia 331 12.04 (11.26–12.86) 8.18 (7.88–8.49) <0.0001 
    Low HDL cholesterol 227 11.29 (10.40–12.25) 8.57 (8.26–8.88) <0.0001 
    Hypertension 1,048 9.54 (9.17–9.92) 7.46 (6.96–8.00) <0.0001 
Adiponectin (mg/l)     
    Metabolic syndrome 245 8.15 (7.59–8.74) 12.57 (12.17–12.98) <0.0001 
    Hyperglycemia 297 10.25 (9.66–10.87) 12.54 (12.16–12.93) <0.0001 
    High waist girth 225 9.74 (9.11–10.41) 12.53 (12.17–12.91) <0.0001 
    Hypertriglyceridemia 331 8.82 (8.36–9.30) 13.24 (12.85–13.64) <0.0001 
    Low HDL cholesterol 227 7.91 (7.43–8.43) 13.06 (12.69–13.43) <0.0001 
    Hypertension 1,048 11.78 (11.41–12.17) 12.78 (12.07–13.54) 0.026 
Metabolic syndrome componentnPresentAbsentP value*
IL-6 (pg/ml)     
    Metabolic syndrome 266 3.14 (2.91–3.38) 2.31 (2.23–2.40) <0.0001 
    Hyperglycemia 300 2.59 (2.40–2.79) 2.41 (2.32–2.50) 0.095 
    High waist girth 252 3.03 (2.80–3.28) 2.35 (2.27–2.43) <0.0001 
    Hypertriglyceridemia 382 2.78 (2.60–2.97) 2.35 (2.26–2.43) <0.0001 
    Low HDL cholesterol 248 2.98 (2.75–3.23) 2.36 (2.28–2.44) <0.0001 
    Hypertension 1,113 2.60 (2.50–2.71) 2.12 (1.99–2.25) <0.0001 
CRP (mg/l)     
    Metabolic syndrome 266 3.36 (2.98–3.78) 1.62 (1.53–1.72) <0.0001 
    Hyperglycemia 300 2.26 (2.00–2.56) 1.73 (1.63–1.84) 0.002 
    High waist girth 252 3.10 (2.72–3.54) 1.65 (1.56–1.75) <0.0001 
    Hypertriglyceridemia 382 2.70 (2.42–3.00) 1.61 (1.52–1.71) <0.0001 
    Low HDL cholesterol 248 2.71 (2.37–3.10) 1.70 (1.60–1.80) <0.0001 
    Hypertension 1,113 2.09 (1.95–2.23) 1.34 (1.21–1.49) <0.0001 
Ghrelin (pg/ml)     
    Metabolic syndrome 245 1,255.5 (1,200.4–1,313.0) 1,363.9 (1,331.2–1,397.4) 0.004 
    Hyperglycemia 297 1,332.0 (1,270.4–1,397.0) 1,343.1 (1,310.7–1,376.3) 0.77 
    High waist girth 225 1,247.1 (1,182.0–1,315.8) 1,359.9 (1,327.9–1,392.6) 0.004 
    Hypertriglyceridemia 331 1,281.9 (1,226.2–1,340.2) 1,359.6 (1,326.2–1,393.8) 0.023 
    Low HDL cholesterol 227 1,212.5 (1,149.7–1,278.8) 1,367.5 (1,335.4–1,400.3) <0.0001 
    Hypertension 1,048 1,332.6 (1,298.7–1,367.3) 1,365.5 (1,304.4–1,429.4) 0.37 
Leptin (ng/ml)     
    Metabolic syndrome 245 13.77 (12.62–15.04) 7.60 (7.30–7.91) <0.0001 
    Hyperglycemia 297 11.23 (10.45–12.07) 8.45 (8.14–8.77) <0.0001 
    High waist girth 225 17.84 (16.57–19.19) 7.84 (7.59–8.10) <0.0001 
    Hypertriglyceridemia 331 12.04 (11.26–12.86) 8.18 (7.88–8.49) <0.0001 
    Low HDL cholesterol 227 11.29 (10.40–12.25) 8.57 (8.26–8.88) <0.0001 
    Hypertension 1,048 9.54 (9.17–9.92) 7.46 (6.96–8.00) <0.0001 
Adiponectin (mg/l)     
    Metabolic syndrome 245 8.15 (7.59–8.74) 12.57 (12.17–12.98) <0.0001 
    Hyperglycemia 297 10.25 (9.66–10.87) 12.54 (12.16–12.93) <0.0001 
    High waist girth 225 9.74 (9.11–10.41) 12.53 (12.17–12.91) <0.0001 
    Hypertriglyceridemia 331 8.82 (8.36–9.30) 13.24 (12.85–13.64) <0.0001 
    Low HDL cholesterol 227 7.91 (7.43–8.43) 13.06 (12.69–13.43) <0.0001 
    Hypertension 1,048 11.78 (11.41–12.17) 12.78 (12.07–13.54) 0.026 
*

P values are based on a t test of log-transformed values.

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