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Table 1—

Characteristics of participants

n 8,733* 
Female (%) 54 
Race/ethnicity (%)  
    Hispanic 16 
    Black non-Hispanic 17 
    White non-Hispanic 42 
    Asian or Pacific Islander 16 
    Other 
Education (%)  
    Less than a high school level 24 
    High school graduate 29 
    Greater than a high school level 47 
Annual income (%)  
    <$15,000 32 
    $15,000 to $39,999 31 
    $40,000 to $74,999 23 
    >$75,000 15 
Age (years) 60.8 ± 12.9 
Duration of diabetes (years) 12.4 ± 11.0 
Charlson index 2.3 ± 1.6 
BMI (kg/m231.1 ± 7.3 
Diabetes treatment (%)  
    Insulin only 19 
    Insulin and oral medications 12 
    Oral medications only 61 
    No medications 
n 8,733* 
Female (%) 54 
Race/ethnicity (%)  
    Hispanic 16 
    Black non-Hispanic 17 
    White non-Hispanic 42 
    Asian or Pacific Islander 16 
    Other 
Education (%)  
    Less than a high school level 24 
    High school graduate 29 
    Greater than a high school level 47 
Annual income (%)  
    <$15,000 32 
    $15,000 to $39,999 31 
    $40,000 to $74,999 23 
    >$75,000 15 
Age (years) 60.8 ± 12.9 
Duration of diabetes (years) 12.4 ± 11.0 
Charlson index 2.3 ± 1.6 
BMI (kg/m231.1 ± 7.3 
Diabetes treatment (%)  
    Insulin only 19 
    Insulin and oral medications 12 
    Oral medications only 61 
    No medications 

Data are percent or means ± SD.

*

Excludes participants without baseline chart data (3,107) or missing exposures (3,107 missing all exposures, plus 87 additional participants missing only influenza vaccination).

Higher score indicates a greater level of comorbidity.

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