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Table 1—

Study sample characteristics

Clinic manager surveyMedical director survey
Demographics   
    n 1,424 1,228 
    Female 680 (48.8) 557 (45.8) 
    Age (years) 63.1 ± 12.8 63.0 ± 12.9 
Clinical   
    A1C (%) 7.5 ± 1.5 7.5 ± 1.5 
    Diabetes duration (years) 12.1 ± 12.6 11.9 ± 12.3 
Chronic disease   
    CHD 361 (25.8) 294 (24.4) 
    Hypertension 939 (66.0) 786 (64.5) 
    Hyperlipidemia 899 (63.1) 760 (61.9) 
    Depression 353 (25.0) 289 (23.7) 
Socioeconomic   
    Annual family income <$25,000 273 (19.3) 236 (19.1) 
    Less than a high school education 99 (6.8) 93 (7.5) 
Enrollment/coverage   
    Years enrolled 2.6 ± 0.4 2.6 ± 0.4 
    Pharmacy coverage 1,114 (77.6) 957 (77.2) 
3-year health care costs ($)   
    Inpatient 7,825 ± 23,255 6,778 ± 17,828 
    Outpatient 8,990 ± 9,105 8,871 ± 9,409 
    Pharmacy 6,999 ± 8,258 6,967 ± 8,566 
    Skilled nursing and dialysis 902 ± 4,083 830 ± 3,792 
Total health care costs ($) 24,717 ± 31,919 23,457 ± 28,008 
Clinic manager surveyMedical director survey
Demographics   
    n 1,424 1,228 
    Female 680 (48.8) 557 (45.8) 
    Age (years) 63.1 ± 12.8 63.0 ± 12.9 
Clinical   
    A1C (%) 7.5 ± 1.5 7.5 ± 1.5 
    Diabetes duration (years) 12.1 ± 12.6 11.9 ± 12.3 
Chronic disease   
    CHD 361 (25.8) 294 (24.4) 
    Hypertension 939 (66.0) 786 (64.5) 
    Hyperlipidemia 899 (63.1) 760 (61.9) 
    Depression 353 (25.0) 289 (23.7) 
Socioeconomic   
    Annual family income <$25,000 273 (19.3) 236 (19.1) 
    Less than a high school education 99 (6.8) 93 (7.5) 
Enrollment/coverage   
    Years enrolled 2.6 ± 0.4 2.6 ± 0.4 
    Pharmacy coverage 1,114 (77.6) 957 (77.2) 
3-year health care costs ($)   
    Inpatient 7,825 ± 23,255 6,778 ± 17,828 
    Outpatient 8,990 ± 9,105 8,871 ± 9,409 
    Pharmacy 6,999 ± 8,258 6,967 ± 8,566 
    Skilled nursing and dialysis 902 ± 4,083 830 ± 3,792 
Total health care costs ($) 24,717 ± 31,919 23,457 ± 28,008 

Data are means ± SD or n (%).

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