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Table 3—

Estimated marginal costs of system of care and quality improvement covariates by domain

Coefficient ± SEP value
Clinic manager survey (n = 1,424)   
    Care management strategies   
        Nonurgent appointments available the same day −3,488 ± 2,474 0.159 
        Clinic coordinates care between providers −322 ± 1,757 0.855 
        Clinic requires patients to have their own clinician 1,409 ± 1,473 0.339 
        Clinicians to meet to discuss patient care problems −3,962 ± 1,254 0.002 
        Clinic has medical information available when it is needed 705 ± 1,874 0.707 
        Follow-up phone calls are made to patients after office visits −242 ± 1,562 0.877 
        Patients are reminded when they need additional care 1,296 ± 1,560 0.406 
Medical director survey (n = 1,228)   
    Patient education   
        Diabetes education on-site 626 ± 1,529 0.682 
        Diabetes education off-site −165 ± 1,307 0.900 
    Registries*   
        Clinic registry exists −1,533 ± 1,540 0.320 
        Registry identifies the regular physician −877 ± 1,526 0.561 
        Registry includes dates of laboratory tests −1,104 ± 1,446 0.446 
        Registry includes test results 48 ± 1,301 0.971 
        Registry indicates when services are due −1,545 ± 1,333 0.247 
        Registry prioritizes patients on clinical status −1,727 ± 1,326 0.193 
        Registries are updated regularly −76 ± 1,361 0.956 
        Registry indicates patients’ levels of cardiovascular risk −2,916 ± 1,243 0.019 
    Information support   
        Databases used to identify patients with diabetes 122 ± 1,416 0.932 
        Database used to systematically monitor labs 2,439 ± 1,172 0.038 
        EMR (provider entry of data) 809 ± 1,148 0.481 
    Quality improvement efforts   
        Formal meetings held −966 ± 1,661 0.561 
        Quality improvement team −2,404 ± 1,561 0.124 
    Specific quality improvement performance-based strategies†   
        Diabetes   
            Quality of care 1,891 ± 1,404 0.178 
            Prescription utilization 1,429 ± 1,358 0.293 
            Resource use −2,883 ± 1,206 0.017 
        Heart disease   
            Quality of care −660 ± 1,494 0.659 
            Prescription utilization 3,059 ± 1,400 0.029 
            Resource use −3,228 ± 1,317 0.014 
        Depression   
            Quality of care −391 ± 2,263 0.863 
            Prescription utilization 2,962 ± 1,427 0.038 
            Resource use −3,037 ± 2,078 0.144 
Coefficient ± SEP value
Clinic manager survey (n = 1,424)   
    Care management strategies   
        Nonurgent appointments available the same day −3,488 ± 2,474 0.159 
        Clinic coordinates care between providers −322 ± 1,757 0.855 
        Clinic requires patients to have their own clinician 1,409 ± 1,473 0.339 
        Clinicians to meet to discuss patient care problems −3,962 ± 1,254 0.002 
        Clinic has medical information available when it is needed 705 ± 1,874 0.707 
        Follow-up phone calls are made to patients after office visits −242 ± 1,562 0.877 
        Patients are reminded when they need additional care 1,296 ± 1,560 0.406 
Medical director survey (n = 1,228)   
    Patient education   
        Diabetes education on-site 626 ± 1,529 0.682 
        Diabetes education off-site −165 ± 1,307 0.900 
    Registries*   
        Clinic registry exists −1,533 ± 1,540 0.320 
        Registry identifies the regular physician −877 ± 1,526 0.561 
        Registry includes dates of laboratory tests −1,104 ± 1,446 0.446 
        Registry includes test results 48 ± 1,301 0.971 
        Registry indicates when services are due −1,545 ± 1,333 0.247 
        Registry prioritizes patients on clinical status −1,727 ± 1,326 0.193 
        Registries are updated regularly −76 ± 1,361 0.956 
        Registry indicates patients’ levels of cardiovascular risk −2,916 ± 1,243 0.019 
    Information support   
        Databases used to identify patients with diabetes 122 ± 1,416 0.932 
        Database used to systematically monitor labs 2,439 ± 1,172 0.038 
        EMR (provider entry of data) 809 ± 1,148 0.481 
    Quality improvement efforts   
        Formal meetings held −966 ± 1,661 0.561 
        Quality improvement team −2,404 ± 1,561 0.124 
    Specific quality improvement performance-based strategies†   
        Diabetes   
            Quality of care 1,891 ± 1,404 0.178 
            Prescription utilization 1,429 ± 1,358 0.293 
            Resource use −2,883 ± 1,206 0.017 
        Heart disease   
            Quality of care −660 ± 1,494 0.659 
            Prescription utilization 3,059 ± 1,400 0.029 
            Resource use −3,228 ± 1,317 0.014 
        Depression   
            Quality of care −391 ± 2,263 0.863 
            Prescription utilization 2,962 ± 1,427 0.038 
            Resource use −3,037 ± 2,078 0.144 

Variables are run as sets with individual-level adjustment for age, sex, comorbidity, income, education, and pharmacy coverage, unless otherwise noted.

*

Due to substantial overlap, these covariates are run individually with individual-level adjustment for age, sex, comorbidity, income, education, and pharmacy coverage. †Due to substantial overlap, these covariates are run in sets of three with individual-level adjustment for age, sex, comorbidity, income, education, and pharmacy coverage.

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