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Table 1—

Age-adjusted characteristics of the Nurses Health Study cohort by total vitamin D and calcium intake at baseline (1980)

CharacteristicTotal vitamin D intake (IU/day)
Total calcium intake (mg/day)
≤200201–400401–600601–800>800≤600601–800801–1,0001,001–1,200>1,200
Number of women 42,731 19,986 11,094 6,345 3,623 32,584 23,016 13,867 7,820 6,519 
Vitamin D intake (IU/day)           
    Total 108 283 498 687 1152 191 271 345 416 590 
    Dietary only 108 236 197 227 268 93 154 208 271 362 
Calcium intake (mg/day)           
    Total 584 881 823 899 1049 458 695 890 1091 1450 
    Dietary only 584 877 808 877 953 457 692 884 1078 1374 
Age (years) 46.0 45.9 46.1 46.4 46.6 45.8 46.2 46.1 45.0 46.4 
State of residence (% southern states)* 19 18 21 21 25 20 19 19 18 19 
BMI (kg/m224.3 24.3 23.9 24.1 24.0 24.2 24.2 24.3 24.2 24.5 
Family history of diabetes (%) 25 24 24 24 23 24 25 24 25 24 
History of high cholesterol (%) 
History of hypertension (%) 15 14 15 16 15 16 14 14 14 15 
Current smoker (%) 31 26 27 24 25 32 27 26 26 26 
Physical activity (h of moderate/ vigorous activity per week) 3.8 3.9 4.2 4.2 4.1 3.7 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.1 
Caffeine intake (mg/day) 422 381 375 363 364 381 419 413 394 393 
Alcohol consumption (g/day) 7.2 5.3 6.9 5.2 4.2 7.8 6.3 5.6 4.8 4.0 
Current use (%)           
    Multivitamin 29 87 98 100 28 34 38 40 45 
    Specific vitamin D supplement 
    Calcium supplement 16 19 22 10 11 12 14 
Magnesium intake (mg/day) 281 304 302 308 313 258 296 317 331 352 
Retinol (IU/day) 2,524 4,201 8,152 10,663 16,961 3,906 4,718 5,546 5,987 7,965 
Dairy foods (servings/day) 1.3 2.5 2.3 2.2 2.0 0.9 1.7 2.4 3.1 3.9 
Milk (servings/day) 0.4 1.5 1.2 1.2 1.2 0.3 0.7 1.2 1.9 2.6 
Diet           
    Saturated fat (% daily energy intake) 15.9 15.4 15.6 14.9 14.4 15.9 15.6 15.3 15.3 15.2 
    Polyunsaturated fat (% daily energy intake) 5.3 5.3 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.6 5.3 5.0 4.8 4.5 
    Trans fatty acids (% daily energy intake) 2.3 2.3 2.2 2.1 2.0 2.4 2.2 2.1 2.0 1.9 
    Cereal fiber (g/day) 2.4 2.7 2.5 2.6 2.6 2.3 2.6 2.6 2.5 2.4 
    Glycemic load/100 86 86 85 86 86 87 86 85 84 82 
CharacteristicTotal vitamin D intake (IU/day)
Total calcium intake (mg/day)
≤200201–400401–600601–800>800≤600601–800801–1,0001,001–1,200>1,200
Number of women 42,731 19,986 11,094 6,345 3,623 32,584 23,016 13,867 7,820 6,519 
Vitamin D intake (IU/day)           
    Total 108 283 498 687 1152 191 271 345 416 590 
    Dietary only 108 236 197 227 268 93 154 208 271 362 
Calcium intake (mg/day)           
    Total 584 881 823 899 1049 458 695 890 1091 1450 
    Dietary only 584 877 808 877 953 457 692 884 1078 1374 
Age (years) 46.0 45.9 46.1 46.4 46.6 45.8 46.2 46.1 45.0 46.4 
State of residence (% southern states)* 19 18 21 21 25 20 19 19 18 19 
BMI (kg/m224.3 24.3 23.9 24.1 24.0 24.2 24.2 24.3 24.2 24.5 
Family history of diabetes (%) 25 24 24 24 23 24 25 24 25 24 
History of high cholesterol (%) 
History of hypertension (%) 15 14 15 16 15 16 14 14 14 15 
Current smoker (%) 31 26 27 24 25 32 27 26 26 26 
Physical activity (h of moderate/ vigorous activity per week) 3.8 3.9 4.2 4.2 4.1 3.7 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.1 
Caffeine intake (mg/day) 422 381 375 363 364 381 419 413 394 393 
Alcohol consumption (g/day) 7.2 5.3 6.9 5.2 4.2 7.8 6.3 5.6 4.8 4.0 
Current use (%)           
    Multivitamin 29 87 98 100 28 34 38 40 45 
    Specific vitamin D supplement 
    Calcium supplement 16 19 22 10 11 12 14 
Magnesium intake (mg/day) 281 304 302 308 313 258 296 317 331 352 
Retinol (IU/day) 2,524 4,201 8,152 10,663 16,961 3,906 4,718 5,546 5,987 7,965 
Dairy foods (servings/day) 1.3 2.5 2.3 2.2 2.0 0.9 1.7 2.4 3.1 3.9 
Milk (servings/day) 0.4 1.5 1.2 1.2 1.2 0.3 0.7 1.2 1.9 2.6 
Diet           
    Saturated fat (% daily energy intake) 15.9 15.4 15.6 14.9 14.4 15.9 15.6 15.3 15.3 15.2 
    Polyunsaturated fat (% daily energy intake) 5.3 5.3 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.6 5.3 5.0 4.8 4.5 
    Trans fatty acids (% daily energy intake) 2.3 2.3 2.2 2.1 2.0 2.4 2.2 2.1 2.0 1.9 
    Cereal fiber (g/day) 2.4 2.7 2.5 2.6 2.6 2.3 2.6 2.6 2.5 2.4 
    Glycemic load/100 86 86 85 86 86 87 86 85 84 82 

Data are means unless otherwise indicated. Intakes of alcohol, caffeine, vitamin D, calcium, magnesium, retinol, cereal fiber, and glycemic load are adjusted for total daily energy intake.

*

Southern states are California, Florida, and Texas. Northern states are Connecticut, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. †Glycemic load is the sum of (glycemic index of individual food [white bread as reference = 1] × carbohydrate content of the food item) for each food.

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