Skip to Main Content
Table 2—

Intake of vitamin D and risk of type 2 diabetes in the Nurses Health Study

Total vitamin D intake (IU/day)
≤200201–400401–600601–800> 800P for trend
No. of new cases of diabetes 1,780 1,812 832 313 106  
Follow-up person-years 603,041 553,325 271,764 107,174 45,653  
RR (95% CI)       
    Age adjusted 1.00 0.94 (0.88–1.00) 0.87 (0.80–0.94) 0.86 (0.76–0.97) 0.74 (0.61–0.91) <0.001 
    Multivariate without diet* 1.00 0.93 (0.87–0.99) 0.93 (0.86–1.01) 0.89 (0.79–1.01) 0.77 (0.63–0.94) 0.002 
    Multivariate with diet 1.00 0.97 (0.89–1.05) 0.99 (0.88–1.10) 0.94 (0.81–1.10) 0.80 (0.64–1.00) 0.15 
    Multivariate with diet + calcium 1.00 1.00 (0.93–1.10) 1.05 (0.93–1.18) 1.01 (0.86–1.19) 0.87 (0.69–1.09) 0.67 
Total vitamin D intake (IU/day)
≤200201–400401–600601–800> 800P for trend
No. of new cases of diabetes 1,780 1,812 832 313 106  
Follow-up person-years 603,041 553,325 271,764 107,174 45,653  
RR (95% CI)       
    Age adjusted 1.00 0.94 (0.88–1.00) 0.87 (0.80–0.94) 0.86 (0.76–0.97) 0.74 (0.61–0.91) <0.001 
    Multivariate without diet* 1.00 0.93 (0.87–0.99) 0.93 (0.86–1.01) 0.89 (0.79–1.01) 0.77 (0.63–0.94) 0.002 
    Multivariate with diet 1.00 0.97 (0.89–1.05) 0.99 (0.88–1.10) 0.94 (0.81–1.10) 0.80 (0.64–1.00) 0.15 
    Multivariate with diet + calcium 1.00 1.00 (0.93–1.10) 1.05 (0.93–1.18) 1.01 (0.86–1.19) 0.87 (0.69–1.09) 0.67 
Dietary vitamin D intake (IU/day)
≤100101–200201–300301–400>400P for trend
No. of new cases of diabetes 829 2031 1257 350 80  
Follow-up person-years 299,091 670,048 371,830 109,938 29,595  
RR (95%CI)       
    Age adjusted 1.00 0.92 (0.85–1.00) 0.98 (0.89–1.07) 0.95 (0.84–1.08) 0.91 (0.72–1.14) 0.80 
    Multivariate without diet* 1.00 0.86 (0.80–0.94) 0.89 (0.81–0.97) 0.82 (0.73–0.94) 0.81 (0.64–1.01) 0.01 
    Multivariate with diet 1.00 0.90 (0.83–0.98) 0.98 (0.89–1.08) 0.93 (0.81–1.01) 0.91 (0.72–1.16) 0.86 
    Multivariate with diet + calcium 1.00 0.94 (0.85–1.03) 1.06 (0.95–1.18) 1.02 (0.88–1.19) 1.00 (0.78–1.29) 0.25 
Dietary vitamin D intake (IU/day)
≤100101–200201–300301–400>400P for trend
No. of new cases of diabetes 829 2031 1257 350 80  
Follow-up person-years 299,091 670,048 371,830 109,938 29,595  
RR (95%CI)       
    Age adjusted 1.00 0.92 (0.85–1.00) 0.98 (0.89–1.07) 0.95 (0.84–1.08) 0.91 (0.72–1.14) 0.80 
    Multivariate without diet* 1.00 0.86 (0.80–0.94) 0.89 (0.81–0.97) 0.82 (0.73–0.94) 0.81 (0.64–1.01) 0.01 
    Multivariate with diet 1.00 0.90 (0.83–0.98) 0.98 (0.89–1.08) 0.93 (0.81–1.01) 0.91 (0.72–1.16) 0.86 
    Multivariate with diet + calcium 1.00 0.94 (0.85–1.03) 1.06 (0.95–1.18) 1.02 (0.88–1.19) 1.00 (0.78–1.29) 0.25 
Supplemental vitamin D intake (IU/day)§
≤100101–200201–300301–400>400P for trend
No. of new cases of diabetes 2,956 678 497 347 365  
Follow-up person-years 947,379 206,980 155,352 125,792 145,455  
RR (95% CI)       
    Age adjusted 1.00 0.87 (0.80–0.95) 0.88 (0.80–0.97) 0.81 (0.72–0.90) 0.79 (0.71–0.88) <0.001 
    Multivariate without diet* 1.00 0.92 (0.84–1.00) 0.97 (0.89–1.07) 0.90 (0.81–1.01) 0.88 (0.79–0.98) 0.007 
    Multivariate without diet 1.00 0.91 (83–1.00) 0.96 (0.85–1.07) 0.88 (0.76–1.00) 0.84 (0.73–0.97) 0.01 
    Multivariate with diet + calcium 1.00 0.92 (0.84–1.01) 0.97 (0.87–1.09) 0.90 (0.78–1.03) 0.87 (0.75–1.00) 0.04 
Supplemental vitamin D intake (IU/day)§
≤100101–200201–300301–400>400P for trend
No. of new cases of diabetes 2,956 678 497 347 365  
Follow-up person-years 947,379 206,980 155,352 125,792 145,455  
RR (95% CI)       
    Age adjusted 1.00 0.87 (0.80–0.95) 0.88 (0.80–0.97) 0.81 (0.72–0.90) 0.79 (0.71–0.88) <0.001 
    Multivariate without diet* 1.00 0.92 (0.84–1.00) 0.97 (0.89–1.07) 0.90 (0.81–1.01) 0.88 (0.79–0.98) 0.007 
    Multivariate without diet 1.00 0.91 (83–1.00) 0.96 (0.85–1.07) 0.88 (0.76–1.00) 0.84 (0.73–0.97) 0.01 
    Multivariate with diet + calcium 1.00 0.92 (0.84–1.01) 0.97 (0.87–1.09) 0.90 (0.78–1.03) 0.87 (0.75–1.00) 0.04 
*

RR adjusted for age, BMI, hypertension, family history of diabetes, smoking, physical activity, caffeine, alcohol, and state of residence (southern states [California, Florida, and Texas] or northern states [Connecticut, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, and Pennsylvania]).

RR adjusted for everything in footnote ∗ plus type of fat (saturated, polyunsaturated, or trans), cereal fiber, glycemic load, magnesium, and retinol.

Women who were specific vitamin D supplement users were excluded at baseline and during follow-up (2,058 at baseline, 8,745 during follow-up). The entire analysis for supplemental vitamin D was also adjusted for multivitamin use (yes or no).

§

The entire analysis was adjusted for multivitamin use (yes or no) and dietary vitamin D intake.

Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal