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Table 4—

RR of type 2 diabetes according to joint categories of total intake of vitamin D and calcium in the Nurses Health Study

VariableVitamin D intake (IU/day)
≤400401–800>800
Calcium ≤600 mg/day    
    Number of new cases of diabetes 1,008 99 
    Follow-up person-years 326,293 37,515 4,177 
    RR (95% CI)* 1.00 1.08 (0.86–1.34) 0.75 (0.37–1.52) 
Calcium 601–1,200 mg/day    
    No. of new cases of diabetes 2,334 676 47 
    Follow-up person-years 743,538 219,904 19,465 
    RR (95% CI)* 0.89 (0.83–0.98) 0.92 (0.82–1.04) 0.86 (0.63–1.17) 
Calcium >1,200 mg/day    
    No. of new cases of diabetes 250 370 51 
    Follow-up person-years 86,536 121,520 22,011 
    RR (95% CI)* 0.81 (0.70–0.95) 0.83 (0.72–0.97) 0.67 (0.49–0.90) 
VariableVitamin D intake (IU/day)
≤400401–800>800
Calcium ≤600 mg/day    
    Number of new cases of diabetes 1,008 99 
    Follow-up person-years 326,293 37,515 4,177 
    RR (95% CI)* 1.00 1.08 (0.86–1.34) 0.75 (0.37–1.52) 
Calcium 601–1,200 mg/day    
    No. of new cases of diabetes 2,334 676 47 
    Follow-up person-years 743,538 219,904 19,465 
    RR (95% CI)* 0.89 (0.83–0.98) 0.92 (0.82–1.04) 0.86 (0.63–1.17) 
Calcium >1,200 mg/day    
    No. of new cases of diabetes 250 370 51 
    Follow-up person-years 86,536 121,520 22,011 
    RR (95% CI)* 0.81 (0.70–0.95) 0.83 (0.72–0.97) 0.67 (0.49–0.90) 
*

RR adjusted for age, BMI, hypertension, family history of diabetes, smoking, physical activity, caffeine, alcohol, and state of residence (southern states [California, Florida, and Texas] or northern states [Connecticut, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, and Pennsylvania], type of fat (saturated, polyunsaturated, or trans) cereal fiber, glycemic load, magnesium, and retinol.

Women with vitamin D intake <400 IU/day and total calcium intake <600 mg/day served as the reference group.

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