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Table 1—

Maternal, birth, and adult characteristics according to timing of prenatal exposure to the Dutch famine

Born before famineExposed to famine in late gestationExposed to famine in mid-gestationExposed to famine in early gestationConceived after famineAlln
General        
    n 19 18 18 18 21 94  
    Proportion of men 0.47 0.56 0.50 0.44 0.52 0.50 94 
    Age (years) 59 58 58 58 57 58 ± 1 94 
Maternal characteristics        
    Proportion of primiparous women 0.32 0.22 0.39 0.50 0.22 0.34 94 
    Weight gain third trimester (kg) 1.9 −0.1* 4.5 5.8* 3.1 2.8 ± 3.2 63 
    Weight at last antenatal visit (kg) 68.8 65.4 64.0* 70.0 69.5 67.7 ± 7.6 84 
Birth outcomes        
    Gestational age (days) 284 285 285 291 289 286 ± 10 82 
    Birth weight (g) 3,311 3,361 3,155* 3,497 3,698 3,413 ± 458 94 
    Ponderal index (kg/m326.2 27.9 25.8 25.6 27.2 26.6 ± 2.5 92 
Adult characteristics        
    BMI (kg/m227.4 27.1 29.0 28.2 27.9 28.1 ± 1.1 94 
    Current smoking 22 22 28 15 17 93 
    Current socioeconomic status (ISEI) 48 53 47 40* 49 47 ± 1 92 
Born before famineExposed to famine in late gestationExposed to famine in mid-gestationExposed to famine in early gestationConceived after famineAlln
General        
    n 19 18 18 18 21 94  
    Proportion of men 0.47 0.56 0.50 0.44 0.52 0.50 94 
    Age (years) 59 58 58 58 57 58 ± 1 94 
Maternal characteristics        
    Proportion of primiparous women 0.32 0.22 0.39 0.50 0.22 0.34 94 
    Weight gain third trimester (kg) 1.9 −0.1* 4.5 5.8* 3.1 2.8 ± 3.2 63 
    Weight at last antenatal visit (kg) 68.8 65.4 64.0* 70.0 69.5 67.7 ± 7.6 84 
Birth outcomes        
    Gestational age (days) 284 285 285 291 289 286 ± 10 82 
    Birth weight (g) 3,311 3,361 3,155* 3,497 3,698 3,413 ± 458 94 
    Ponderal index (kg/m326.2 27.9 25.8 25.6 27.2 26.6 ± 2.5 92 
Adult characteristics        
    BMI (kg/m227.4 27.1 29.0 28.2 27.9 28.1 ± 1.1 94 
    Current smoking 22 22 28 15 17 93 
    Current socioeconomic status (ISEI) 48 53 47 40* 49 47 ± 1 92 

Data are means ± SD unless otherwise indicated.

*

Statistically significant difference (P < 0.05) compared with people unexposed to famine in utero.

Geometric means ± SD. ISEI, International Socio-Economic Index.

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