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Table 1—

Baseline characteristics of the study population by level of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee consumption

Caffeinated coffee
Decaffeinated coffee
No cups per dayLess than one cup per dayOne cup per dayTwo to three cups per dayFour or more cups per dayNo cups dayLess than one cup per dayOne cup per dayTwo or more cups per day
Median 0.40 1.1 2.5 4.5 0.14 1.0 2.5 
n (participants) 33,375 14,020 11,292 21,672 7,900 56,728 19,605 5,999 5,927 
Age (years) 35.6 35.4 36.2 36.8 37.6 35.8 36.2 37.1 38.2 
BMI (kg/m224.9 24.6 24.2 24.1 24.6 24.8 24.1 24.0 24.2 
Physical activity (MET h/week) 20.3 20.6 22.0 21.8 21.4 20.6 21.2 22.2 22.3 
Current smoker (%) 6.7 7.7 10.0 16.9 35.6 13.7 9.0 8.7 13.3 
Family history of diabetes (%) 16.1 15.6 15.4 15.7 17.6 16.3 15.0 15.7 15.7 
Hypertension (%) 3.6 3.6 3.1 2.6 2.5 3.4 2.8 3.1 2.5 
Hypercholesterolemia (%) 9.6 9.3 8.9 8.6 9.7 9.3 9.1 9.3 8.6 
Ever hormone replacement therapy (%) 7.3 6.9 7.1 6.5 6.9 7.1 6.6 6.9 7.0 
Current oral contraceptive use (%) 10.7 12.1 12.1 10.6 8.2 11.7 9.7 8.2 7.8 
Dietary intake          
    Total energy (kcal/day) 1,777 1,781 1,787 1,788 1,832 1,768 1,822 1,819 1,829 
    Alcohol consumption (g/day) 1.8 2.8 3.5 4.7 4.6 3.0 3.4 3.0 3.6 
    P:S ratio 0.52 0.53 0.53 0.52 0.51 0.52 0.53 0.54 0.53 
    Cereal fiber (g/day) 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.6 5.3 5.4 5.9 6.1 6.0 
    Glycemic index 54.6 54.1 53.7 53.2 52.5 54.1 53.7 53.3 52.6 
    Processed meat (servings/day) 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 
    Sugar-sweetened soft drinks (servings/day) 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 
    High-fat dairy (servings/day) 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 0.9 1.0 0.9 1.0 
    Low-fat dairy (servings/day) 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.3 1.5 1.5 1.5 
    Tea (cups/day) 0.8 0.8 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.8 0.6 0.6 0.6 
    Decaffeinated coffee (cups/day) 0.3 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2     
    Caffeinated coffee (cups/day)      1.2 1.4 1.1 1.0 
    Magnesium (g/day) 302 312 318 327 344 307 324 335 346 
    Caffeine (mg/day) 80 118 204 415 747 253 249 205 198 
Caffeinated coffee
Decaffeinated coffee
No cups per dayLess than one cup per dayOne cup per dayTwo to three cups per dayFour or more cups per dayNo cups dayLess than one cup per dayOne cup per dayTwo or more cups per day
Median 0.40 1.1 2.5 4.5 0.14 1.0 2.5 
n (participants) 33,375 14,020 11,292 21,672 7,900 56,728 19,605 5,999 5,927 
Age (years) 35.6 35.4 36.2 36.8 37.6 35.8 36.2 37.1 38.2 
BMI (kg/m224.9 24.6 24.2 24.1 24.6 24.8 24.1 24.0 24.2 
Physical activity (MET h/week) 20.3 20.6 22.0 21.8 21.4 20.6 21.2 22.2 22.3 
Current smoker (%) 6.7 7.7 10.0 16.9 35.6 13.7 9.0 8.7 13.3 
Family history of diabetes (%) 16.1 15.6 15.4 15.7 17.6 16.3 15.0 15.7 15.7 
Hypertension (%) 3.6 3.6 3.1 2.6 2.5 3.4 2.8 3.1 2.5 
Hypercholesterolemia (%) 9.6 9.3 8.9 8.6 9.7 9.3 9.1 9.3 8.6 
Ever hormone replacement therapy (%) 7.3 6.9 7.1 6.5 6.9 7.1 6.6 6.9 7.0 
Current oral contraceptive use (%) 10.7 12.1 12.1 10.6 8.2 11.7 9.7 8.2 7.8 
Dietary intake          
    Total energy (kcal/day) 1,777 1,781 1,787 1,788 1,832 1,768 1,822 1,819 1,829 
    Alcohol consumption (g/day) 1.8 2.8 3.5 4.7 4.6 3.0 3.4 3.0 3.6 
    P:S ratio 0.52 0.53 0.53 0.52 0.51 0.52 0.53 0.54 0.53 
    Cereal fiber (g/day) 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.6 5.3 5.4 5.9 6.1 6.0 
    Glycemic index 54.6 54.1 53.7 53.2 52.5 54.1 53.7 53.3 52.6 
    Processed meat (servings/day) 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 
    Sugar-sweetened soft drinks (servings/day) 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 
    High-fat dairy (servings/day) 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 0.9 1.0 0.9 1.0 
    Low-fat dairy (servings/day) 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.3 1.5 1.5 1.5 
    Tea (cups/day) 0.8 0.8 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.8 0.6 0.6 0.6 
    Decaffeinated coffee (cups/day) 0.3 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2     
    Caffeinated coffee (cups/day)      1.2 1.4 1.1 1.0 
    Magnesium (g/day) 302 312 318 327 344 307 324 335 346 
    Caffeine (mg/day) 80 118 204 415 747 253 249 205 198 

Data are means, unless otherwise indicated. Data, except age, were directly standardized to the age distribution of entire cohort. MET, metabolic equivalent, P:S ratio, ratio of polyunsaturated and saturated fat intake.

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