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Table 1—

Baseline demographic and clinical variables

Vegan groupADA groupP value
n 49 50  
Age (years) 56.7 (35–82) 54.6 (27–80) 0.29 
Sex   0.26 
    Male 22 (45) 17 (34)  
    Female 27 (55) 33 (66)  
Race, ethnicity   0.71* 
    Black, non-Hispanic 22 (45) 22 (44)  
    White, non-Hispanic 21 (43) 22 (44)  
    White, Hispanic 4 (8) 2 (4)  
    Asian, non-Hispanic 2 (4) 4 (8)  
Marital status   0.08 
    Not married 20 (41) 26 (52)  
    Married 29 (59) 24 (48)  
Education   0.69 
    High school, partial or graduate 6 (12) 3 (6)  
    College, partial or graduate 26 (53) 25 (50)  
    Graduate degree 17 (35) 22 (44)  
Occupation   0.04 
    Service occupation 3 (6) 7 (14)  
    Technical, sales, administrative 16 (33) 18 (36)  
    Professional or managerial 15 (31) 21 (42)  
    Retired 15 (31) 4 (8)  
On insulin 11 (22) 5 (10) 0.09 
On metformin 34 (69) 39 (78) 0.33 
On sulfonylurea 25 (51) 29 (58) 0.49 
On thiazolidinedione 16 (33) 15 (30) 0.78 
On other diabetes medications 1 (2) 2 (4) 0.57 
On blood pressure medications 31 (63) 38 (76) 0.17 
On lipid-lowering medications 27 (55) 27 (54) 0.88 
History of eye involvement 9 (18) 10 (20) 0.82 
History of renal involvement 6 (12) 4 (8) 0.48 
History of neuropathy 18 (37) 24 (48) 0.25 
Mean BMI (kg/m233.9 35.9 0.18 
    <25 kg/m2 5 (10) 2 (4)  
    25–29.9 kg/m2 14 (29) 5 (10)  
    ≥30 kg/m2 30 (61) 43 (86)  
Vegan groupADA groupP value
n 49 50  
Age (years) 56.7 (35–82) 54.6 (27–80) 0.29 
Sex   0.26 
    Male 22 (45) 17 (34)  
    Female 27 (55) 33 (66)  
Race, ethnicity   0.71* 
    Black, non-Hispanic 22 (45) 22 (44)  
    White, non-Hispanic 21 (43) 22 (44)  
    White, Hispanic 4 (8) 2 (4)  
    Asian, non-Hispanic 2 (4) 4 (8)  
Marital status   0.08 
    Not married 20 (41) 26 (52)  
    Married 29 (59) 24 (48)  
Education   0.69 
    High school, partial or graduate 6 (12) 3 (6)  
    College, partial or graduate 26 (53) 25 (50)  
    Graduate degree 17 (35) 22 (44)  
Occupation   0.04 
    Service occupation 3 (6) 7 (14)  
    Technical, sales, administrative 16 (33) 18 (36)  
    Professional or managerial 15 (31) 21 (42)  
    Retired 15 (31) 4 (8)  
On insulin 11 (22) 5 (10) 0.09 
On metformin 34 (69) 39 (78) 0.33 
On sulfonylurea 25 (51) 29 (58) 0.49 
On thiazolidinedione 16 (33) 15 (30) 0.78 
On other diabetes medications 1 (2) 2 (4) 0.57 
On blood pressure medications 31 (63) 38 (76) 0.17 
On lipid-lowering medications 27 (55) 27 (54) 0.88 
History of eye involvement 9 (18) 10 (20) 0.82 
History of renal involvement 6 (12) 4 (8) 0.48 
History of neuropathy 18 (37) 24 (48) 0.25 
Mean BMI (kg/m233.9 35.9 0.18 
    <25 kg/m2 5 (10) 2 (4)  
    25–29.9 kg/m2 14 (29) 5 (10)  
    ≥30 kg/m2 30 (61) 43 (86)  

Data are mean (range) or n (%) unless otherwise indicated. P values refer to t test for continuous variables and χ2 for categorical variables.

*

P value calculated for race distribution; for ethnicity (Hispanic vs. non-Hispanic), P = 0.39.

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