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Table 2—

Diet effects on clinical measures

Vegan group (n = 49, except as noted)
ADA group (n = 50, except as noted)
P value
Baseline22 weeksChangeBaseline22 weeksChangeEffect size
Anthropometric and glycemic variables         
    All participants         
        A1C (%) 8.0 ± 1.1 7.1 ± 1.0 −1.0 ± 1.2* 7.9 ± 1.0 7.4 ± 1.0 −0.6 ± 1.1 −0.4 (−0.9 to 0.1) 0.09 
        Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/l) 9.08 ± 2.95 7.11 ± 1.97 −1.97 ± 2.68* 8.90 ± 2.26 6.98 ± 1.91 1.92 ± 2.48* −0.05 (−1.08 to 0.98) 0.92 
        Fasting plasma glucose (mg/dl) 163.5 ± 53.2 128.0 ± 35.5 −35.5 ± 48.3* 160.4 ± 40.7 125.8 ± 34.4 −34.6 ± 44.7* −0.9 (−19.5 to 17.6) 0.92 
        Weight (kg) 97.0 ± 22.9 91.1 ± 22.4 −5.8 ± 4.4* 99.3 ± 21.0 95.0 ± 20.9 −4.3 ± 4.4* −1.6 (−3.3 to 0.2) 0.08 
        BMI (kg/m233.9 ± 7.8 31.8 ± 7.5 −2.1 ± 1.5* 35.9 ± 7.0 34.3 ± 7.3 −1.5 ± 1.5* −0.6 (−1.2 to 0.1) 0.08 
        Waist (cm) 110.8 ± 18.4 105.5 ± 18.1 −5.3 ± 4.4* 112.3 ± 14.9 109.5 ± 14.7 −2.8 ± 4.7* −2.5 (−4.3 to −0.7) 0.008 
        Hip (cm) 118.4 ± 17.8 114.5 ± 17.8 −3.9 ± 3.4* 121.3 ± 12.7 117.5 ± 12.2 −3.8 ± 3.9* −0.1 (−1.5 to 1.4) 0.94 
        Waist-to-hip ratio (cm) 0.94 ± 0.08 0.92 ± 0.07 −0.02 ± 0.03 0.93 ± 0.07 0.93 ± 0.07 0.01 ± 0.04 −0.02 (−0.03 to 0.01) 0.003 
    Participants whose diabetes medications remained unchanged (n = 24 vegan, n = 33 ADA)         
        A1C (%) 8.07 ± 1.24 6.84 ± 0.84 −1.23 ± 1.38 7.88 ± 0.93 7.50 ± 1.03 −0.38 ± 1.11 −0.85 (−1.51 to −0.19) 0.01 
        Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/l) 9.85 ± 2.95 7.12 ± 1.80 2.73 ± 3.05 8.90 ± 2.05 7.34 ± 2.05 1.57 ± 2.50 −1.17 (−2.64 to 0.31) 0.12 
        Fasting plasma glucose (mg/dl) 177.4 ± 53.2 128.2 ± 32.4 −49.2 ± 55.0 160.3 ± 37.0 132.2 ± 36.9 −28.2 ± 45.0 −21.1 (−47.6 to 5.5) 0.12 
        Weight (kg) 102.4 ± 23.6 95.9 ± 22.4 −6.5 ± 4.3* 100.0 ± 19.4 96.9 ± 19.1 −3.1 ± 3.4* −3.4 (−5.5 to −1.4) 0.001 
        BMI (kg/m236.1 ± 7.5 33.8 ± 7.2 −2.3 ± 1.5* 36.0 ± 5.8 34.9 ± 5.9 −1.1 ± 1.2* −1.2 (−1.9 to −0.5) 0.001 
        Waist (cm) 115.3 ± 17.9 110.3 ± 17.8 −5.0 ± 3.7* 113.3 ± 13.1 111.0 ± 13.5 −2.3 ± 4.2 −2.7 (−4.8 to −0.5) 0.017 
        Hip (cm) 123.3 ± 17.4 119.1 ± 17.3 −4.1 ± 2.8* 121.7 ± 12.1 118.6 ± 11.6 −3.1 ± 3.3* −1.0 (−2.7 to 0.7) 0.23 
        Waist-to-hip ratio (cm) 0.94 ± 0.08 0.93 ± 0.07 −0.01 ± 0.03 0.93 ± 0.07 0.94 ± 0.08 0.00 ± 0.04 −0.02 (−0.03 to 0.00) 0.10 
Renal variable         
    Urinary albumin/24 h 33.0 ± 51.8 14.6 ± 17.8 −18.4 ± 39.0 55.0 ± 263.1 43.7 ± 212.0 −11.3 ± 53.9 −7.1 (−25.9 to 11.7) 0.45 
    With albumin >30 mg/24 h (m12 −7 −2 NA NA 
Blood pressure (n = 48 vegan, n = 50 ADA) (mmHg)§         
    Systolic 123.8 ± 17.1 120.0 ± 18.3 −3.8 ± 12.6 122.9 ± 15.1 119.4 ± 16.5 −3.6 ± 13.7 −0.2 (−5.5 to 5.1) 0.93 
    Diastolic 77.9 ± 11.1 72.8 ± 10.2 −5.1 ± 8.3* 80.0 ± 10.5 76.7 ± 11.1 −3.3 ± 8.8 −1.8 (−5.2 to 1.6) 0.30 
All participants         
    Total cholesterol (mg/dl) 187.0 ± 37.4 159.3 ± 31.9 −27.7 ± 28.5* 198.9 ± 44.0 174.6 ± 36.2 −24.2 ± 30.5* −3.5 (−15.3 to 8.3) 0.56 
    HDL cholesterol (mg/dl) 52.3 ± 19.7 47.3 ± 16.9 −5.0 ± 7.1* 49.8 ± 14.5 46.6 ± 11.8 −3.2 ± 11.0 −1.8 (−5.5 to 1.9) 0.34 
    Non-HDL cholesterol (mg/dl) 134.7 ± 39.2 112.0 ± 31.9 −22.7 ± 28.2* 149.0 ± 44.1 128.0 ± 35.0 −21.0 ± 31.5* −1.7 (−13.6 to 10.2) 0.78 
    Total cholesterol/HDL (mg/dl) 4.0 ± 1.6 3.7 ± 1.2 −0.3 ± 0.9 4.3 ± 1.7 3.9 ± 1.2 −0.4 ± 1.2 −0.0 (−0.4 to 0.4) 0.92 
    LDL cholesterol (n = 49 vegan, n = 48 ADA) (mg/dl) 104.4 ± 32.9 88.0 ± 27.8 −16.4 ± 30.6 118.5 ± 41.5 103.1 ± 33.3 −15.4 ± 25.1* −1.0 (−12.3 to 10.3) 0.86 
    VLDL cholesterol (n = 47 vegan, n = 47 ADA) (mg/dl) 26.2 ± 14.4 23.0 ± 10.2 −3.2 ± 10.0 26.8 ± 13.8 22.3 ± 10.0 −4.4 ± 12.4 1.2 (−3.4 to 5.8) 0.60 
    Triglycerides (mg/dl) 148.1 ± 112.5 119.7 ± 56.0 −28.5 ± 80.0 158.1 ± 133.1 132.9 ± 114.4 −25.1 ± 124.7 −3.3 (−45.2 to 38.6) 0.87 
    Log triglycerides 2.08 ± 0.28 2.03 ± 0.21 −0.05 ± 0.17 2.11 ± 0.25 2.05 ± 0.23 −0.07 ± 0.20 0.02 (−0.05 to 0.09) 0.61 
Participants with no changes to lipid-controlling medications (n = 39 vegan, n = 41 ADA, except as noted)         
    Total cholesterol (mg/dl) 190.5 ± 36.8 156.9 ± 25.1 −33.5 ± 21.5* 194.9 ± 40.9 175.9 ± 36.2 −19.0 ± 28.5* −14.5 (−25.8 to −3.2) 0.01 
    HDL cholesterol (mg/dl) 54.6 ± 21.0 48.6 ± 18.4 −6.0 ± 6.8* 49.2 ± 15.5 46.4 ± 12.2 −2.8 ± 11.6 −3.2 (−7.5 to 1.1) 0.14 
    Non-HDL cholesterol (mg/dl) 135.9 ± 38.4 108.3 ± 25.6 −27.6 ± 21.1* 145.7 ± 42.9 129.4 ± 35.9 −16.3 ± 30.1 −11.3 (−22.9 to 0.3) 0.05 
    Total cholesterol/HDL (mg/dl) 3.9 ± 1.5 3.6 ± 1.2 −0.3 ± 0.6 4.4 ± 1.8 4.0 ± 1.3 −0.3 ± 1.2 −0.0 (−0.4 to 0.4) 0.98 
    LDL cholesterol (n = 39 vegan, n = 39 ADA) (mg/dl) 107.3 ± 34.3 84.6 ± 22.5 −22.6 ± 22.0* 115.3 ± 40.4 104.6 ± 33.7 −10.7 ± 23.3 −11.9 (−22.2 to −1.7) 0.02 
    VLDL cholesterol (n = 38 n = vegan, 38 ADA) (mg/dl) 26.6 ± 15.4 23.1 ± 10.9 −3.5 ± 10.5 25.5 ± 13.2 21.7 ± 9.0 −3.8 ± 12.1 0.4 (−4.8 to 5.6) 0.89 
    Triglycerides (mg/dl) 140.3 ± 89.1 118.2 ± 57.3 −22.2 ± 58.5 157.4 ± 143.0 134.6 ± 122.9 −22.8 ± 134.3 0.6 (−45.9 to 47.2) 0.98 
    Log triglycerides 2.06 ± 0.28 2.02 ± 0.22 −0.04 ± 0.16 2.11 ± 0.25 2.05 ± 0.24 −0.06 ± 0.21 0.02 (−0.1 to 0.1) 0.68 
Vegan group (n = 49, except as noted)
ADA group (n = 50, except as noted)
P value
Baseline22 weeksChangeBaseline22 weeksChangeEffect size
Anthropometric and glycemic variables         
    All participants         
        A1C (%) 8.0 ± 1.1 7.1 ± 1.0 −1.0 ± 1.2* 7.9 ± 1.0 7.4 ± 1.0 −0.6 ± 1.1 −0.4 (−0.9 to 0.1) 0.09 
        Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/l) 9.08 ± 2.95 7.11 ± 1.97 −1.97 ± 2.68* 8.90 ± 2.26 6.98 ± 1.91 1.92 ± 2.48* −0.05 (−1.08 to 0.98) 0.92 
        Fasting plasma glucose (mg/dl) 163.5 ± 53.2 128.0 ± 35.5 −35.5 ± 48.3* 160.4 ± 40.7 125.8 ± 34.4 −34.6 ± 44.7* −0.9 (−19.5 to 17.6) 0.92 
        Weight (kg) 97.0 ± 22.9 91.1 ± 22.4 −5.8 ± 4.4* 99.3 ± 21.0 95.0 ± 20.9 −4.3 ± 4.4* −1.6 (−3.3 to 0.2) 0.08 
        BMI (kg/m233.9 ± 7.8 31.8 ± 7.5 −2.1 ± 1.5* 35.9 ± 7.0 34.3 ± 7.3 −1.5 ± 1.5* −0.6 (−1.2 to 0.1) 0.08 
        Waist (cm) 110.8 ± 18.4 105.5 ± 18.1 −5.3 ± 4.4* 112.3 ± 14.9 109.5 ± 14.7 −2.8 ± 4.7* −2.5 (−4.3 to −0.7) 0.008 
        Hip (cm) 118.4 ± 17.8 114.5 ± 17.8 −3.9 ± 3.4* 121.3 ± 12.7 117.5 ± 12.2 −3.8 ± 3.9* −0.1 (−1.5 to 1.4) 0.94 
        Waist-to-hip ratio (cm) 0.94 ± 0.08 0.92 ± 0.07 −0.02 ± 0.03 0.93 ± 0.07 0.93 ± 0.07 0.01 ± 0.04 −0.02 (−0.03 to 0.01) 0.003 
    Participants whose diabetes medications remained unchanged (n = 24 vegan, n = 33 ADA)         
        A1C (%) 8.07 ± 1.24 6.84 ± 0.84 −1.23 ± 1.38 7.88 ± 0.93 7.50 ± 1.03 −0.38 ± 1.11 −0.85 (−1.51 to −0.19) 0.01 
        Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/l) 9.85 ± 2.95 7.12 ± 1.80 2.73 ± 3.05 8.90 ± 2.05 7.34 ± 2.05 1.57 ± 2.50 −1.17 (−2.64 to 0.31) 0.12 
        Fasting plasma glucose (mg/dl) 177.4 ± 53.2 128.2 ± 32.4 −49.2 ± 55.0 160.3 ± 37.0 132.2 ± 36.9 −28.2 ± 45.0 −21.1 (−47.6 to 5.5) 0.12 
        Weight (kg) 102.4 ± 23.6 95.9 ± 22.4 −6.5 ± 4.3* 100.0 ± 19.4 96.9 ± 19.1 −3.1 ± 3.4* −3.4 (−5.5 to −1.4) 0.001 
        BMI (kg/m236.1 ± 7.5 33.8 ± 7.2 −2.3 ± 1.5* 36.0 ± 5.8 34.9 ± 5.9 −1.1 ± 1.2* −1.2 (−1.9 to −0.5) 0.001 
        Waist (cm) 115.3 ± 17.9 110.3 ± 17.8 −5.0 ± 3.7* 113.3 ± 13.1 111.0 ± 13.5 −2.3 ± 4.2 −2.7 (−4.8 to −0.5) 0.017 
        Hip (cm) 123.3 ± 17.4 119.1 ± 17.3 −4.1 ± 2.8* 121.7 ± 12.1 118.6 ± 11.6 −3.1 ± 3.3* −1.0 (−2.7 to 0.7) 0.23 
        Waist-to-hip ratio (cm) 0.94 ± 0.08 0.93 ± 0.07 −0.01 ± 0.03 0.93 ± 0.07 0.94 ± 0.08 0.00 ± 0.04 −0.02 (−0.03 to 0.00) 0.10 
Renal variable         
    Urinary albumin/24 h 33.0 ± 51.8 14.6 ± 17.8 −18.4 ± 39.0 55.0 ± 263.1 43.7 ± 212.0 −11.3 ± 53.9 −7.1 (−25.9 to 11.7) 0.45 
    With albumin >30 mg/24 h (m12 −7 −2 NA NA 
Blood pressure (n = 48 vegan, n = 50 ADA) (mmHg)§         
    Systolic 123.8 ± 17.1 120.0 ± 18.3 −3.8 ± 12.6 122.9 ± 15.1 119.4 ± 16.5 −3.6 ± 13.7 −0.2 (−5.5 to 5.1) 0.93 
    Diastolic 77.9 ± 11.1 72.8 ± 10.2 −5.1 ± 8.3* 80.0 ± 10.5 76.7 ± 11.1 −3.3 ± 8.8 −1.8 (−5.2 to 1.6) 0.30 
All participants         
    Total cholesterol (mg/dl) 187.0 ± 37.4 159.3 ± 31.9 −27.7 ± 28.5* 198.9 ± 44.0 174.6 ± 36.2 −24.2 ± 30.5* −3.5 (−15.3 to 8.3) 0.56 
    HDL cholesterol (mg/dl) 52.3 ± 19.7 47.3 ± 16.9 −5.0 ± 7.1* 49.8 ± 14.5 46.6 ± 11.8 −3.2 ± 11.0 −1.8 (−5.5 to 1.9) 0.34 
    Non-HDL cholesterol (mg/dl) 134.7 ± 39.2 112.0 ± 31.9 −22.7 ± 28.2* 149.0 ± 44.1 128.0 ± 35.0 −21.0 ± 31.5* −1.7 (−13.6 to 10.2) 0.78 
    Total cholesterol/HDL (mg/dl) 4.0 ± 1.6 3.7 ± 1.2 −0.3 ± 0.9 4.3 ± 1.7 3.9 ± 1.2 −0.4 ± 1.2 −0.0 (−0.4 to 0.4) 0.92 
    LDL cholesterol (n = 49 vegan, n = 48 ADA) (mg/dl) 104.4 ± 32.9 88.0 ± 27.8 −16.4 ± 30.6 118.5 ± 41.5 103.1 ± 33.3 −15.4 ± 25.1* −1.0 (−12.3 to 10.3) 0.86 
    VLDL cholesterol (n = 47 vegan, n = 47 ADA) (mg/dl) 26.2 ± 14.4 23.0 ± 10.2 −3.2 ± 10.0 26.8 ± 13.8 22.3 ± 10.0 −4.4 ± 12.4 1.2 (−3.4 to 5.8) 0.60 
    Triglycerides (mg/dl) 148.1 ± 112.5 119.7 ± 56.0 −28.5 ± 80.0 158.1 ± 133.1 132.9 ± 114.4 −25.1 ± 124.7 −3.3 (−45.2 to 38.6) 0.87 
    Log triglycerides 2.08 ± 0.28 2.03 ± 0.21 −0.05 ± 0.17 2.11 ± 0.25 2.05 ± 0.23 −0.07 ± 0.20 0.02 (−0.05 to 0.09) 0.61 
Participants with no changes to lipid-controlling medications (n = 39 vegan, n = 41 ADA, except as noted)         
    Total cholesterol (mg/dl) 190.5 ± 36.8 156.9 ± 25.1 −33.5 ± 21.5* 194.9 ± 40.9 175.9 ± 36.2 −19.0 ± 28.5* −14.5 (−25.8 to −3.2) 0.01 
    HDL cholesterol (mg/dl) 54.6 ± 21.0 48.6 ± 18.4 −6.0 ± 6.8* 49.2 ± 15.5 46.4 ± 12.2 −2.8 ± 11.6 −3.2 (−7.5 to 1.1) 0.14 
    Non-HDL cholesterol (mg/dl) 135.9 ± 38.4 108.3 ± 25.6 −27.6 ± 21.1* 145.7 ± 42.9 129.4 ± 35.9 −16.3 ± 30.1 −11.3 (−22.9 to 0.3) 0.05 
    Total cholesterol/HDL (mg/dl) 3.9 ± 1.5 3.6 ± 1.2 −0.3 ± 0.6 4.4 ± 1.8 4.0 ± 1.3 −0.3 ± 1.2 −0.0 (−0.4 to 0.4) 0.98 
    LDL cholesterol (n = 39 vegan, n = 39 ADA) (mg/dl) 107.3 ± 34.3 84.6 ± 22.5 −22.6 ± 22.0* 115.3 ± 40.4 104.6 ± 33.7 −10.7 ± 23.3 −11.9 (−22.2 to −1.7) 0.02 
    VLDL cholesterol (n = 38 n = vegan, 38 ADA) (mg/dl) 26.6 ± 15.4 23.1 ± 10.9 −3.5 ± 10.5 25.5 ± 13.2 21.7 ± 9.0 −3.8 ± 12.1 0.4 (−4.8 to 5.6) 0.89 
    Triglycerides (mg/dl) 140.3 ± 89.1 118.2 ± 57.3 −22.2 ± 58.5 157.4 ± 143.0 134.6 ± 122.9 −22.8 ± 134.3 0.6 (−45.9 to 47.2) 0.98 
    Log triglycerides 2.06 ± 0.28 2.02 ± 0.22 −0.04 ± 0.16 2.11 ± 0.25 2.05 ± 0.24 −0.06 ± 0.21 0.02 (−0.1 to 0.1) 0.68 

Data are means ± SD unless otherwise indicated. Listed P values are for comparisons of between-group (vegan vs. ADA) changes (baseline to 22 weeks).

*

P < 0.0001,

P < 0.001,

P < 0.01, and

P < 0.05 for within-group changes.

§

Blood pressure was not determined on one vegan group participant due to equipment failure.

When triglycerides exceeded 400 mg/dl, LDL was calculated via direct-LDL; two ADA-group individuals were excluded due to lack of sufficient plasma samples. SI conversion: to convert HDL, LDL, and total cholesterol to mmol/l, multiply by 0.0259; for tryiglycerides, multiply by 0.0113.

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