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Table 1—

Characteristics of men and women at baseline and after a 5-year follow-up

MenWomenP value
n 46 21  
Baseline    
    Age (years) 56.0 ± 1.8 54.0 ± 2.8 0.5 
    Duration of diabetes (years) 14.3 ± 1.5 15.7 ± 1.7 0.5 
    A1C (%) 8.1 ± 1.3 8.0 ± 1.0 0.7 
    BMI (kg/m227.7 ± 0.7 31.6 ± 1.2 0.008 
    Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 133.9 ± 1.7 139.2 ± 1.9 0.04 
    Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 79.4 ± 1.1 81.6 ± 1.6 0.3 
    Total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio 5.38 ± 0.3 4.6 ± 0.3 0.06 
    Current smoking (%) 30 38 0.6 
    Serum creatinine (μmol/l) 84.8 ± 2.3 74.0 ± 4.7 0.05 
    Urinary albumin excretion (mg/l) 70.4 ± 6.1 81.8 ± 11.3 0.3 
    Retinopathy (%) 27 48 0.1 
5-year follow-up    
    A1C (%) 8.6 ± 1.4 8.3 ± 1.0 0.4 
    Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 139.5 ± 2.6 140.3 ± 3.5 0.9 
    Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 79.9 ± 6.5 77.2 ± 7.8 0.2 
    Serum creatinine (μmol/l) 89.0 ± 3.8 81.3 ± 4.5 0.2 
    Urinary albumin excretion (mg/l) 133.7 ± 40.1 124.4 ± 34.2 0.9 
    Antihypertensive medication (%) 89 100 0.03 
    Aspirin (%) 23.3 28.6 0.7 
    Statin use (%) 55 48 0.6 
MenWomenP value
n 46 21  
Baseline    
    Age (years) 56.0 ± 1.8 54.0 ± 2.8 0.5 
    Duration of diabetes (years) 14.3 ± 1.5 15.7 ± 1.7 0.5 
    A1C (%) 8.1 ± 1.3 8.0 ± 1.0 0.7 
    BMI (kg/m227.7 ± 0.7 31.6 ± 1.2 0.008 
    Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 133.9 ± 1.7 139.2 ± 1.9 0.04 
    Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 79.4 ± 1.1 81.6 ± 1.6 0.3 
    Total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio 5.38 ± 0.3 4.6 ± 0.3 0.06 
    Current smoking (%) 30 38 0.6 
    Serum creatinine (μmol/l) 84.8 ± 2.3 74.0 ± 4.7 0.05 
    Urinary albumin excretion (mg/l) 70.4 ± 6.1 81.8 ± 11.3 0.3 
    Retinopathy (%) 27 48 0.1 
5-year follow-up    
    A1C (%) 8.6 ± 1.4 8.3 ± 1.0 0.4 
    Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 139.5 ± 2.6 140.3 ± 3.5 0.9 
    Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 79.9 ± 6.5 77.2 ± 7.8 0.2 
    Serum creatinine (μmol/l) 89.0 ± 3.8 81.3 ± 4.5 0.2 
    Urinary albumin excretion (mg/l) 133.7 ± 40.1 124.4 ± 34.2 0.9 
    Antihypertensive medication (%) 89 100 0.03 
    Aspirin (%) 23.3 28.6 0.7 
    Statin use (%) 55 48 0.6 

Data are means ± SE.

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