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Table 1—

Baseline characteristics of the study participants, grouped according to vitamin D status

VariablesWithout hypovitaminosis D [25(OH)D: 29.0 ± 9 ng/ml]With hypovitaminosis D [25(OH)D: 13.6 ± 3.3 ng/ml]P
n 180 279 — 
Sex (% men) 74 57 0.001 
Age (years) 61 ± 7 62 ± 7 NS 
BMI (kg/m229.2 ± 4.5 29.7 ± 5.1 NS 
Waist circumference (cm) 106.8 ± 12 107 ± 12 NS 
Diabetes duration (years) 11 ± 8 12 ± 8 NS 
Diet only (%) 17 14 NS 
Oral hypoglycemic agents only (%) 64 57 NS 
Insulin treatment (%) 19 29 0.01 
Statin users (%) 20.6 31.2 0.01 
Aspirin users (%) 20.6 33.7 0.01 
Current smokers (%) 16.7 19.7 NS 
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 144 ± 18 145 ± 17 NS 
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 80 ± 7 80 ± 8 NS 
A1C (%) 7.0 ± 1.3 7.4 ± 1.3 0.01 
(ln)triglycerides (mmol/l) 1.74 ± 0.8 2.02 ± 1.3 0.01 
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 1.33 ± 0.3 1.36 ± 0.4 NS 
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 3.49 ± 0.9 3.40 ± 0.9 NS 
Creatinine (μmol/l) 74 ± 15 76 ± 18 NS 
Calcium (mmol/l) 2.35 ± 0.1 2.38 ± 0.2 NS 
Fibrinogen (g/l) 4.02 ± 0.9 4.56 ± 0.9 0.001 
(ln)hs-CRP (mg/l) 3.85 ± 5.4 5.10 ± 6.7 0.001 
Microalbuminuria (%) 18 18.4 NS 
Macroalbuminuria (%) 5.8 6.5 NS 
Adult Treatment Panel III: metabolic syndrome (%) 78.7 84.2 NS 
Cardiovascular disease (%)    
    “Aggregate” end point 24.4 35.5 0.01 
    Coronary 9.5 22.9 0.001 
    Cerebrovascular 7.8 13.5 0.06 
    Peripheral 9.9 8.0 NS 
VariablesWithout hypovitaminosis D [25(OH)D: 29.0 ± 9 ng/ml]With hypovitaminosis D [25(OH)D: 13.6 ± 3.3 ng/ml]P
n 180 279 — 
Sex (% men) 74 57 0.001 
Age (years) 61 ± 7 62 ± 7 NS 
BMI (kg/m229.2 ± 4.5 29.7 ± 5.1 NS 
Waist circumference (cm) 106.8 ± 12 107 ± 12 NS 
Diabetes duration (years) 11 ± 8 12 ± 8 NS 
Diet only (%) 17 14 NS 
Oral hypoglycemic agents only (%) 64 57 NS 
Insulin treatment (%) 19 29 0.01 
Statin users (%) 20.6 31.2 0.01 
Aspirin users (%) 20.6 33.7 0.01 
Current smokers (%) 16.7 19.7 NS 
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 144 ± 18 145 ± 17 NS 
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 80 ± 7 80 ± 8 NS 
A1C (%) 7.0 ± 1.3 7.4 ± 1.3 0.01 
(ln)triglycerides (mmol/l) 1.74 ± 0.8 2.02 ± 1.3 0.01 
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 1.33 ± 0.3 1.36 ± 0.4 NS 
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 3.49 ± 0.9 3.40 ± 0.9 NS 
Creatinine (μmol/l) 74 ± 15 76 ± 18 NS 
Calcium (mmol/l) 2.35 ± 0.1 2.38 ± 0.2 NS 
Fibrinogen (g/l) 4.02 ± 0.9 4.56 ± 0.9 0.001 
(ln)hs-CRP (mg/l) 3.85 ± 5.4 5.10 ± 6.7 0.001 
Microalbuminuria (%) 18 18.4 NS 
Macroalbuminuria (%) 5.8 6.5 NS 
Adult Treatment Panel III: metabolic syndrome (%) 78.7 84.2 NS 
Cardiovascular disease (%)    
    “Aggregate” end point 24.4 35.5 0.01 
    Coronary 9.5 22.9 0.001 
    Cerebrovascular 7.8 13.5 0.06 
    Peripheral 9.9 8.0 NS 

Data are the means ± SD, unless otherwise indicated. Differences were assessed by the unpaired t test (for normally distributed variables) and by the χ2 test (for categorical variables).

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