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Table 1—

Baseline clinical characteristics in type 1 diabetic patients with and without diabetic nephropathy

Patients with diabetic nephropathyPatients with normoalbuminuriaP value
197 191  
Sex (male/female) 120/77 117/74 NS 
Age (years) 41 ± 9 43 ± 10 NS 
Duration of diabetes (years) 28 ± 8 27 ± 8 NS 
BMI (kg/m224.0 ± 3.3 23.6 ± 2.5 NS 
A1C (%) 9.5 ± 1.5 8.5 ± 1.1 <0.001 
Smoking (%) 50 42 NS 
History of stroke 14 (7) 2 (1) <0.001 
History of myocardial infarction 10 (5) 2 (1) <0.001 
History of stroke/myocardial infarction 21 (11) 4 (2) <0.001 
Retinopathy (nil/simplex/proliferative) 0/61/136 67/106/18 <0.001 
Urinary albumin excretion (mg/24 h)* 796 (16–14,565) 8 (1–30)  
Serum creatinine (μmol/l) 103 (54–684) 76 (40–116) <0.001 
GFR (ml/min per 1.73 m274 ± 34   
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 151 ± 23 132 ± 18 <0.001 
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 86 ± 13 76 ± 10 <0.001 
Serum cholesterol (mmol/l) 5.6 ± 1.2 4.8 ± 1.0 <0.001 
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 1.46 ± 0.5 1.56 ± 0.4 <0.001 
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 3.54 ± 1.1 2.82 ± 0.9 <0.001 
Triglycerides (mmol/l) 1.22 (0.3–9.8) 0.77 (0.28–3.1) <0.001 
HRV (bpm) 6 (0–50) 13 (0–55) <0.001 
HRV (abnormal/borderline/normal) 151/21/25 65/44/82 <0.001 
HRV (abnormal/borderline/normal) (%) 76/11/13 34/23/43  
Antihypertensive treatment (%) 81 13 <0.001 
Statins (%)  
Aspirin (%) 11 <0.001 
Patients with diabetic nephropathyPatients with normoalbuminuriaP value
197 191  
Sex (male/female) 120/77 117/74 NS 
Age (years) 41 ± 9 43 ± 10 NS 
Duration of diabetes (years) 28 ± 8 27 ± 8 NS 
BMI (kg/m224.0 ± 3.3 23.6 ± 2.5 NS 
A1C (%) 9.5 ± 1.5 8.5 ± 1.1 <0.001 
Smoking (%) 50 42 NS 
History of stroke 14 (7) 2 (1) <0.001 
History of myocardial infarction 10 (5) 2 (1) <0.001 
History of stroke/myocardial infarction 21 (11) 4 (2) <0.001 
Retinopathy (nil/simplex/proliferative) 0/61/136 67/106/18 <0.001 
Urinary albumin excretion (mg/24 h)* 796 (16–14,565) 8 (1–30)  
Serum creatinine (μmol/l) 103 (54–684) 76 (40–116) <0.001 
GFR (ml/min per 1.73 m274 ± 34   
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 151 ± 23 132 ± 18 <0.001 
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 86 ± 13 76 ± 10 <0.001 
Serum cholesterol (mmol/l) 5.6 ± 1.2 4.8 ± 1.0 <0.001 
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 1.46 ± 0.5 1.56 ± 0.4 <0.001 
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 3.54 ± 1.1 2.82 ± 0.9 <0.001 
Triglycerides (mmol/l) 1.22 (0.3–9.8) 0.77 (0.28–3.1) <0.001 
HRV (bpm) 6 (0–50) 13 (0–55) <0.001 
HRV (abnormal/borderline/normal) 151/21/25 65/44/82 <0.001 
HRV (abnormal/borderline/normal) (%) 76/11/13 34/23/43  
Antihypertensive treatment (%) 81 13 <0.001 
Statins (%)  
Aspirin (%) 11 <0.001 

Data are means ± SD, n (%), or median (range) unless otherwise indicated.

*

Some patients with previously persistent albuminuria receiving antihypertensive medication had urinary albumin excretion <300 mg/24 h.

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