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Table 1—

Patient characteristics

Subject populationStandard therapyEnhanced therapyStructured foot examination
n 58 59 56 
Age (years) 65.0 ± 9.6 (41–80) 65.4 ± 9.3 (42–80) 64.2 ± 8.6 (40–80) 
Sex (% male) 53.4 55.9 51.7 
Race    
    Non-Hispanic white 31 (53.4) 32 (54.2) 31 (55) 
    Mexican American 24 (41.4) 22 (37.3) 25 (45) 
    African American 3 (5.2) 3 (5.1) 2 (4) 
Type 2 diabetes 56 (97) 55 (93) 53 (95) 
Duration of diabetes (years) 13.7 ± 10.3 (2–22) 12.7 ± 9.7 (4–25) 13.8 ± 11.5 (5–31) 
Diabetes medication    
    Oral 31 (53.4) 32 (54.2) 30 (53.6) 
    Insulin 13 (22.4) 15 (25.4) 10 (17.9) 
    Combination 10 (17.2) 11 (18.6) 12 (21.4) 
Diet 4 (6.9) 1 (1.7) 4 (7.1) 
Ulcer history and locations    
    Hallux 7 (12.1) 4 (6.8) 8 (14.3) 
    Toes 29 (50.0) 35 (59.4) 30 (53.5) 
    Submetatarsal 21 (36.2) 17 (28.8) 21 (37.5) 
    Midfoot to heel 3 (5.1) 7 (11.9) 5 (8.9) 
Patients with a history of previous amputation 18 (31.0) 13 (22.0) 14 (25.0) 
Amputation sites    
    Toe 12 (20.7) 11 (18.6) 12 (21.4) 
    Toe and metatarsal 8 (13.8) 4 (6.8) 4 (7.1) 
    Midfoot 2 (3.4) 2 (3.6) 
History of vascular surgery    
    Lower extremity bypass 3 (5.2) 
    Lower extremity angioplasty 1 (1.8) 
    Coronary artery bypass surgery 2 (3.4) 1 (1.7) 
    Cardiac angioplasty 2 (3.6) 
Lower extremity examination    
    Neuropathy evaluation    
        Semmes-Weinstein 10-g monofilament right 5.2 ± 4.8 5.3 ± 4.7 5.2 ± 4.7 
        Semmes-Weinstein 10-g monofilament left 4.7 ± 4.3 4.7 ± 4.3 4.7 ± 4.3 
        Vibration perception threshold right 41.8 ± 9.8 (14–50) 40.6 ± 9.6 (12–50) 40.6 ± 8.6 (14–50) 
        Vibration perception threshold left 39.3 ± 8.6 (12–50) 38.6 ± 8.1 (11–50) 39.0 ± 8.0 (12–50) 
    Foot deformity    
        Hallux rigidus 50 (86.2) 51 (86.4) 46 (82.1) 
        Hallux valgus 23 (39.0) 33 (55.0) 12 (21.0) 
        Claw toe/hammer toe 33 (56.0) 41 (69.0) 41 (73.0) 
    Vascular examination    
        Ankle-brachial index right 1.1 ± 0.4 (0.7–1.5) 1.1 ± 0.4 (0.7–1.5) 1.1 ± 0.6 (0.8–2.0) 
        Ankle-brachial index left 1.2 ± 0.5 (0.7–1.7) 1.1 ± 0.6 (0.7–1.9) 1.2 ± 0.6 (0.7–1.9) 
        Activity (steps per day) 3,817 ± 3,364 3,489 ± 2,706 3,963 ± 2,363 
    Footwear compliance    
        Time prescribed shoes were worn (h)    
            <4 1 (1.7) 2 (3.4) 
            4–8 5 (8.6) 8 (13.6) 15 (26.8) 
            >8–12 33 (56.9) 31 (52.5) 19 (33.9) 
            >12 19 (32.6) 18 (30.5) 22 (39.3) 
Subject populationStandard therapyEnhanced therapyStructured foot examination
n 58 59 56 
Age (years) 65.0 ± 9.6 (41–80) 65.4 ± 9.3 (42–80) 64.2 ± 8.6 (40–80) 
Sex (% male) 53.4 55.9 51.7 
Race    
    Non-Hispanic white 31 (53.4) 32 (54.2) 31 (55) 
    Mexican American 24 (41.4) 22 (37.3) 25 (45) 
    African American 3 (5.2) 3 (5.1) 2 (4) 
Type 2 diabetes 56 (97) 55 (93) 53 (95) 
Duration of diabetes (years) 13.7 ± 10.3 (2–22) 12.7 ± 9.7 (4–25) 13.8 ± 11.5 (5–31) 
Diabetes medication    
    Oral 31 (53.4) 32 (54.2) 30 (53.6) 
    Insulin 13 (22.4) 15 (25.4) 10 (17.9) 
    Combination 10 (17.2) 11 (18.6) 12 (21.4) 
Diet 4 (6.9) 1 (1.7) 4 (7.1) 
Ulcer history and locations    
    Hallux 7 (12.1) 4 (6.8) 8 (14.3) 
    Toes 29 (50.0) 35 (59.4) 30 (53.5) 
    Submetatarsal 21 (36.2) 17 (28.8) 21 (37.5) 
    Midfoot to heel 3 (5.1) 7 (11.9) 5 (8.9) 
Patients with a history of previous amputation 18 (31.0) 13 (22.0) 14 (25.0) 
Amputation sites    
    Toe 12 (20.7) 11 (18.6) 12 (21.4) 
    Toe and metatarsal 8 (13.8) 4 (6.8) 4 (7.1) 
    Midfoot 2 (3.4) 2 (3.6) 
History of vascular surgery    
    Lower extremity bypass 3 (5.2) 
    Lower extremity angioplasty 1 (1.8) 
    Coronary artery bypass surgery 2 (3.4) 1 (1.7) 
    Cardiac angioplasty 2 (3.6) 
Lower extremity examination    
    Neuropathy evaluation    
        Semmes-Weinstein 10-g monofilament right 5.2 ± 4.8 5.3 ± 4.7 5.2 ± 4.7 
        Semmes-Weinstein 10-g monofilament left 4.7 ± 4.3 4.7 ± 4.3 4.7 ± 4.3 
        Vibration perception threshold right 41.8 ± 9.8 (14–50) 40.6 ± 9.6 (12–50) 40.6 ± 8.6 (14–50) 
        Vibration perception threshold left 39.3 ± 8.6 (12–50) 38.6 ± 8.1 (11–50) 39.0 ± 8.0 (12–50) 
    Foot deformity    
        Hallux rigidus 50 (86.2) 51 (86.4) 46 (82.1) 
        Hallux valgus 23 (39.0) 33 (55.0) 12 (21.0) 
        Claw toe/hammer toe 33 (56.0) 41 (69.0) 41 (73.0) 
    Vascular examination    
        Ankle-brachial index right 1.1 ± 0.4 (0.7–1.5) 1.1 ± 0.4 (0.7–1.5) 1.1 ± 0.6 (0.8–2.0) 
        Ankle-brachial index left 1.2 ± 0.5 (0.7–1.7) 1.1 ± 0.6 (0.7–1.9) 1.2 ± 0.6 (0.7–1.9) 
        Activity (steps per day) 3,817 ± 3,364 3,489 ± 2,706 3,963 ± 2,363 
    Footwear compliance    
        Time prescribed shoes were worn (h)    
            <4 1 (1.7) 2 (3.4) 
            4–8 5 (8.6) 8 (13.6) 15 (26.8) 
            >8–12 33 (56.9) 31 (52.5) 19 (33.9) 
            >12 19 (32.6) 18 (30.5) 22 (39.3) 

Data are means ± SD (range) or n (%).

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