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Table 1—

Participant characteristics and association with diabetes prevention advice and diabetes screening advice scale scores

TotalDiabetes prevention adviceDiabetes screening advice
Age (years)    
    <34 34 4.99 ± 1.46 1.65 ± 1.24 
    34 to <38 35 4.81 ± 1.40 1.62 ± 1.18 
    ≥38 31 4.92 ± 1.34 1.83 ± 1.15 
Race    
    Non-Hispanic white 71 5.00 ± 1.28 1.60 ± 1.20 
    Hispanic 5.09 ± 1.30 1.64 ± 1.12 
    Asian/Pacific Islander 13 4.51 ± 1.72 1.90 ± 1.11 
    African American 4.60 ± 1.68 1.93 ± 1.16 
    Other 1.48 ± 1.93 2.00 ± 1.41 
Education    
    High school degree only 4.81 ± 1.50 1.53 ± 1.12 
    Some college 28 4.81 ± 1.63 1.65 ± 1.26 
    College or advanced degree 64 4.98 ± 1.28 1.72 ± 1.17 
Annual household income    
    Less than $40,000 16 4.57 ± 1.65 1.49 ± 1.25 
    $40,000 to <$75,0000 33 4.94 ± 1.26 1.82 ± 1.11 
    ≥$75,000 51 4.96 ± 1.43 1.64 ± 1.21 
Family history of diabetes* 54 4.90 ± 1.39 1.60 ± 1.16 
Current diabetes 5.55 ± 0.69 2.64 ± 0.67 
History of dyslipidemia 25 5.28 ± 1.12 2.06 ± 1.11 
Hypertension outside of pregnancy 11 5.12 ± 1.56 1.96 ± 1.27 
Current cigarette smoking 11% 4.62 ± 1.81 1.35 ± 1.23 
Duration of breast-feeding without formula    
    No breast-feeding or <3 months 54 4.89 ± 1.43 1.65 ± 1.19 
    3 months to <1 year 32 4.77 ± 1.42 1.70 ± 1.22 
    ≥1 year or more 14 5.13 ± 1.31 1.74 ± 1.21 
Current BMI    
    <25 kg/m2 34 4.75 ± 1.53 1.69 ± 1.18 
    25 to <30 kg/m2 23 4.92 ± 1.38 1.43 ± 1.19 
    ≥30 kg/m2 43 5.04 ± 1.27 1.84 ± 1.18 
Number of months since delivery    
    <15 months 32 5.03 ± 1.49 1.86 ± 1.18 
    15 to <33 months 32 4.89 ± 1.36 1.66 ± 1.18 
    ≥33 months 35 4.82 ± 1.35 1.58 ± 1.18 
Prenatal provider type    
    Obstetrician/gynecologist 91 4.91 ± 1.40 1.71 ± 1.19 
    Family practitioner 15 4.79 ± 1.32 1.94 ± 1.18 
    Endocrinologist 42 5.31 ± 0.94 2.11 ± 1.01 
    Midwife 5.23 ± 0.83 1.92 ± 1.12 
    Dietitian 60 5.17 ± 1.18 1.83 ± 1.15 
    Other 5.18 ± 1.08 1.64 ± 1.29 
Insulin use during pregnancy 44 5.42 ± 0.79 2.06 ± 1.01 
TotalDiabetes prevention adviceDiabetes screening advice
Age (years)    
    <34 34 4.99 ± 1.46 1.65 ± 1.24 
    34 to <38 35 4.81 ± 1.40 1.62 ± 1.18 
    ≥38 31 4.92 ± 1.34 1.83 ± 1.15 
Race    
    Non-Hispanic white 71 5.00 ± 1.28 1.60 ± 1.20 
    Hispanic 5.09 ± 1.30 1.64 ± 1.12 
    Asian/Pacific Islander 13 4.51 ± 1.72 1.90 ± 1.11 
    African American 4.60 ± 1.68 1.93 ± 1.16 
    Other 1.48 ± 1.93 2.00 ± 1.41 
Education    
    High school degree only 4.81 ± 1.50 1.53 ± 1.12 
    Some college 28 4.81 ± 1.63 1.65 ± 1.26 
    College or advanced degree 64 4.98 ± 1.28 1.72 ± 1.17 
Annual household income    
    Less than $40,000 16 4.57 ± 1.65 1.49 ± 1.25 
    $40,000 to <$75,0000 33 4.94 ± 1.26 1.82 ± 1.11 
    ≥$75,000 51 4.96 ± 1.43 1.64 ± 1.21 
Family history of diabetes* 54 4.90 ± 1.39 1.60 ± 1.16 
Current diabetes 5.55 ± 0.69 2.64 ± 0.67 
History of dyslipidemia 25 5.28 ± 1.12 2.06 ± 1.11 
Hypertension outside of pregnancy 11 5.12 ± 1.56 1.96 ± 1.27 
Current cigarette smoking 11% 4.62 ± 1.81 1.35 ± 1.23 
Duration of breast-feeding without formula    
    No breast-feeding or <3 months 54 4.89 ± 1.43 1.65 ± 1.19 
    3 months to <1 year 32 4.77 ± 1.42 1.70 ± 1.22 
    ≥1 year or more 14 5.13 ± 1.31 1.74 ± 1.21 
Current BMI    
    <25 kg/m2 34 4.75 ± 1.53 1.69 ± 1.18 
    25 to <30 kg/m2 23 4.92 ± 1.38 1.43 ± 1.19 
    ≥30 kg/m2 43 5.04 ± 1.27 1.84 ± 1.18 
Number of months since delivery    
    <15 months 32 5.03 ± 1.49 1.86 ± 1.18 
    15 to <33 months 32 4.89 ± 1.36 1.66 ± 1.18 
    ≥33 months 35 4.82 ± 1.35 1.58 ± 1.18 
Prenatal provider type    
    Obstetrician/gynecologist 91 4.91 ± 1.40 1.71 ± 1.19 
    Family practitioner 15 4.79 ± 1.32 1.94 ± 1.18 
    Endocrinologist 42 5.31 ± 0.94 2.11 ± 1.01 
    Midwife 5.23 ± 0.83 1.92 ± 1.12 
    Dietitian 60 5.17 ± 1.18 1.83 ± 1.15 
    Other 5.18 ± 1.08 1.64 ± 1.29 
Insulin use during pregnancy 44 5.42 ± 0.79 2.06 ± 1.01 

Data are percent or means ± 1 SD. Boldface type indicates associations at P < 0.05.

*

Defined as first-degree relative with diabetes.

Women could see multiple provider types during pregnancy, so percentages do not sum to 100.

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