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Table 1—

Descriptive and metabolic characteristics, along with adiponectin and receptor gene expression, from a cross-sectional study of subjects categorized as lean, subcutaneous obese, or visceral obese and from a separate exercise intervention trial of 60 subjects categorized in groups of NGT, IGT, and type 2 diabetes

VariableCross-sectional study
Exercise intervention study
LeanSubcutaneous obeseVisceral obeseNGTIGTType 2 diabetes
n 58 58 37 20 20 20 
Male/female sex 28/30 28/30 19/18 9/11 9/11 11/9 
Age (years) 50.2 ± 2.1 55.3 ± 1.7 64.4 ± 1.9§ 32.8 ± 2.5 56.0 ± 3.6 53.1 ± 1.5 
Anthropometric       
    BMI (kg/m223.9 ± 0.2 35.9 ± 0.9 33.6 ± 1.0 24.3 ± 0.3 29.8 ± 0.9 31.4 ± 0.7 
    WHR 0.85 ± 0.02 1.05 ± 0.02 1.13 ± 0.02§ 0.84 ± 0.02 1.21 ± 0.04 1.28 ± 0.03 
    Body fat (%) 21.6 ± 0.4 41.1 ± 1.2 32.9 ± 1.1 24.5 ± 0.7 34.9 ± 1.9 38.2 ± 1.8 
    Visceral fat area (cm260.9 ± 2.5 146.6 ± 4.1 272.7 ± 10.2 — — — 
    Subcutaneous fat area (cm277.1 ± 3.9 620.5 ± 39.7 381.4 ± 28.7 — — — 
    Computed tomography ratio — 0.48 ± 0.04 0.84 ± 0.03 — — — 
Metabolic       
    Fasting plasma insulin (pmol/l) 28.0 ± 1.5 170.4 ± 17.2 198.0 ± 18.5 66.0 ± 8.0 695.0 ± 110 319.0 ± 48*§ 
    Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/l) 5.4 ± 0.1 5.9 ± 0.19 5.8 ± 0.2 5.2 ± 0.1 5.7 ± 0.12* 6.2 ± 0.1§ 
    2-h OGTT glucose (mmol/l) 5.9 ± 0.1 6.8 ± 0.30* 7.4 ± 0.39 6.0 ± 0.2 9.4 ± 0.20 13.1 ± 0.3 
WBGU (μmol · kg−1 · min−197.2 ± 1.0 57.4 ± 4.0 38.6 ± 4.7§ 75.9 ± 3.8 18.7 ± 2.0 21.5 ± 2.1 
Lipids       
    Total cholesterol (mg/dl) 201.0 ± 4.8 202.2 ± 3.9 224.2 ± 4.8§ 178.7 ± 4.3 206.5 ± 4.6 216.6 ± 6.2 
    HDL cholesterol (mg/dl) 62.0 ± 2.5 48.6 ± 1.9 41.6 ± 3.0 46.4 ± 1.9 63.4 ± 2.7 56.8 ± 2.7* 
    LDL cholesterol (mg/dl) 107.1 ± 3.9 110.6 ± 3.7 136.5 ± 4.4 90.5 ± 3.9 124.5 ± 4.6 127.6 ± 7.3 
    Free fatty acids (mmol) 0.30 ± 0.02 0.66 ± 0.05 0.78 ± 0.05 0.41 ± 0.04 0.54 ± 0.06 0.56 ± 0.06 
VariableCross-sectional study
Exercise intervention study
LeanSubcutaneous obeseVisceral obeseNGTIGTType 2 diabetes
n 58 58 37 20 20 20 
Male/female sex 28/30 28/30 19/18 9/11 9/11 11/9 
Age (years) 50.2 ± 2.1 55.3 ± 1.7 64.4 ± 1.9§ 32.8 ± 2.5 56.0 ± 3.6 53.1 ± 1.5 
Anthropometric       
    BMI (kg/m223.9 ± 0.2 35.9 ± 0.9 33.6 ± 1.0 24.3 ± 0.3 29.8 ± 0.9 31.4 ± 0.7 
    WHR 0.85 ± 0.02 1.05 ± 0.02 1.13 ± 0.02§ 0.84 ± 0.02 1.21 ± 0.04 1.28 ± 0.03 
    Body fat (%) 21.6 ± 0.4 41.1 ± 1.2 32.9 ± 1.1 24.5 ± 0.7 34.9 ± 1.9 38.2 ± 1.8 
    Visceral fat area (cm260.9 ± 2.5 146.6 ± 4.1 272.7 ± 10.2 — — — 
    Subcutaneous fat area (cm277.1 ± 3.9 620.5 ± 39.7 381.4 ± 28.7 — — — 
    Computed tomography ratio — 0.48 ± 0.04 0.84 ± 0.03 — — — 
Metabolic       
    Fasting plasma insulin (pmol/l) 28.0 ± 1.5 170.4 ± 17.2 198.0 ± 18.5 66.0 ± 8.0 695.0 ± 110 319.0 ± 48*§ 
    Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/l) 5.4 ± 0.1 5.9 ± 0.19 5.8 ± 0.2 5.2 ± 0.1 5.7 ± 0.12* 6.2 ± 0.1§ 
    2-h OGTT glucose (mmol/l) 5.9 ± 0.1 6.8 ± 0.30* 7.4 ± 0.39 6.0 ± 0.2 9.4 ± 0.20 13.1 ± 0.3 
WBGU (μmol · kg−1 · min−197.2 ± 1.0 57.4 ± 4.0 38.6 ± 4.7§ 75.9 ± 3.8 18.7 ± 2.0 21.5 ± 2.1 
Lipids       
    Total cholesterol (mg/dl) 201.0 ± 4.8 202.2 ± 3.9 224.2 ± 4.8§ 178.7 ± 4.3 206.5 ± 4.6 216.6 ± 6.2 
    HDL cholesterol (mg/dl) 62.0 ± 2.5 48.6 ± 1.9 41.6 ± 3.0 46.4 ± 1.9 63.4 ± 2.7 56.8 ± 2.7* 
    LDL cholesterol (mg/dl) 107.1 ± 3.9 110.6 ± 3.7 136.5 ± 4.4 90.5 ± 3.9 124.5 ± 4.6 127.6 ± 7.3 
    Free fatty acids (mmol) 0.30 ± 0.02 0.66 ± 0.05 0.78 ± 0.05 0.41 ± 0.04 0.54 ± 0.06 0.56 ± 0.06 

Data are means ± SE and were compared using ANOVA with Bonferroni corrections for post hoc tests.

*

P < 0.05,

P < 0.01,

P < 0.001 versus lean group (cross-sectional study) or NGT group (intervention study).

§

P < 0.01,

P < 0.001 versus subcutaneous obese group (cross-sectional study) or IGT group (intervention study). WBGU, whole-body glucose uptake during the steady state of euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp.

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