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Table 2—

Neurovascular factors in wound closure

C groupD groupP value
LDImax (PU) 577.4 ± 125.3 310.33 ± 97.3 <0.0001 
LDIflare (cm25.2 ± 1.8 1.8 ± 0.7 <0.0001 
Nerve fiber density (per mm2456.3 ± 160.1 216.0 ± 144.0 0.001 
Blood vessel density (per mm2116.5 ± 21.0 116.8 ± 27.8 0.96 
VEGF (epidermal) 0.36 ± 0.30 0.16 ± 0.18 0.03 
VEGF (dermal) 0.04 ± 0.07 0.01 ± 0.004 0.04 
VEGFR-2 (epidermal) 21.58 ± 25.99 9.66 ± 12.91 0.05 
VEGFR-2 (blood vessel) 7.94 ± 6.88 3.45 ± 3.14 0.04 
HIF-1α (epidermal) 6.42 ± 6.32 8.68 ± 11.74 0.63 
HIF-1α (blood vessel) 16.99 ± 15.98 10.22 ± 12.55 0.14 
C groupD groupP value
LDImax (PU) 577.4 ± 125.3 310.33 ± 97.3 <0.0001 
LDIflare (cm25.2 ± 1.8 1.8 ± 0.7 <0.0001 
Nerve fiber density (per mm2456.3 ± 160.1 216.0 ± 144.0 0.001 
Blood vessel density (per mm2116.5 ± 21.0 116.8 ± 27.8 0.96 
VEGF (epidermal) 0.36 ± 0.30 0.16 ± 0.18 0.03 
VEGF (dermal) 0.04 ± 0.07 0.01 ± 0.004 0.04 
VEGFR-2 (epidermal) 21.58 ± 25.99 9.66 ± 12.91 0.05 
VEGFR-2 (blood vessel) 7.94 ± 6.88 3.45 ± 3.14 0.04 
HIF-1α (epidermal) 6.42 ± 6.32 8.68 ± 11.74 0.63 
HIF-1α (blood vessel) 16.99 ± 15.98 10.22 ± 12.55 0.14 

Data are means ± SD. Maximum hyperemia: LDImax (PU), C-fiber function: LDIflare (cm2), and dermal nerve fiber density: nerve fiber density (per mm2) was significantly reduced in diabetic patients compared with control subjects. Epidermal and dermal VEGF-A and epidermal and dermal blood vessel VEGFR-2 expression were significantly reduced in diabetic patients. HIF-1α and dermal blood vessel density did not differ significantly between the diabetic patients and control subjects.

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