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Table 1—

Baseline characteristics by glucose tolerance group

NGTIGTType 2 diabetesP value
n 20 20 20  
Men/women 9/11 9/11 11/9 0.77 
Age (years) 32.8 ± 2.5 56.0 ± 2.6* 53.1 ± 1.5* <0.001 
Body weight (kg) 69.6 ± 3.2 87.6 ± 3.7 94.7 ± 4.4* <0.001 
BMI (kg/m224.3 ± 0.3 29.8 ± 0.9* 31.4 ± 0.7* <0.001 
Waist-to-hip ratio 0.84 ± 0.02 1.21 ± 0.04* 1.28 ± 0.03* <0.001 
Fat mass (%) 24.5 ± 0.7 34.9 ± 1.9* 38.2 ± 1.8* <0.001 
Tobacco use (n1 (5) 4 (20) 8 (40) 0.03 
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/l) 5.2 ± 0.1 5.7 ± 0.1 6.2 ± 0.1 <0.001 
2-h OGTT glucose (mmol/l) 6.0 ± 0.2 9.4 ± 0.2* 13.1 ± 0.3* <0.001 
Fasting plasma insulin (pmol/l) 66 ± 8 695 ± 110* 319 ± 47 <0.001 
Whole-blood glucose uptake (μmol · kg−1 · min−175.9 ± 3.8 18.7 ± 9.0* 21.5 ± 9.2* <0.001 
Free fatty acids (mmol/l) 0.41 ± 0.04 0.54 ± 0.06 0.56 ± 0.06 0.11 
Fasting leptin (pmol/l)     
    Male 2.8 ± 0.7 20.7 ± 3.0 31.9 ± 3.5* <0.001 
    Female 6.1 ± 0.8 42.2 ± 7.2* 53.2 ± 5.3* <0.001 
Total cholesterol (mmol/l) 4.62 ± 0.11 5.34 ± 0.12 5.60 ± 0.16* <0.001 
Total HDL (mmol/l) 1.62 ± 0.07 1.21 ± 0.04* 1.11 ± 0.04* <0.001 
Total LDL (mmol/l) 2.34 ± 0.10 3.22 ± 0.12* 3.30 ± 0.19* <0.001 
Triglycerides (mmol/l) 2.03 ± 0.06 2.01 ± 0.10 2.11 ± 0.07 0.63 
ADIPOL (μg/ml) 8.95 ± 0.55 3.38 ± 0.26* 3.48 ± 0.42* <0.001 
ADIPOM (μg/ml) 8.81 ± 3.43 3.51 ± 1.47* 3.82 ± 2.16* <0.001 
ADIPOA (μg/ml) 6.72 ± 0.65 6.25 ± 0.68 5.15 ± 0.90 0.32 
HMW adiponectin (μg/ml) 2.88 ± 0.32 2.80 ± 0.44 2.42 ± 0.63 0.78 
NGTIGTType 2 diabetesP value
n 20 20 20  
Men/women 9/11 9/11 11/9 0.77 
Age (years) 32.8 ± 2.5 56.0 ± 2.6* 53.1 ± 1.5* <0.001 
Body weight (kg) 69.6 ± 3.2 87.6 ± 3.7 94.7 ± 4.4* <0.001 
BMI (kg/m224.3 ± 0.3 29.8 ± 0.9* 31.4 ± 0.7* <0.001 
Waist-to-hip ratio 0.84 ± 0.02 1.21 ± 0.04* 1.28 ± 0.03* <0.001 
Fat mass (%) 24.5 ± 0.7 34.9 ± 1.9* 38.2 ± 1.8* <0.001 
Tobacco use (n1 (5) 4 (20) 8 (40) 0.03 
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/l) 5.2 ± 0.1 5.7 ± 0.1 6.2 ± 0.1 <0.001 
2-h OGTT glucose (mmol/l) 6.0 ± 0.2 9.4 ± 0.2* 13.1 ± 0.3* <0.001 
Fasting plasma insulin (pmol/l) 66 ± 8 695 ± 110* 319 ± 47 <0.001 
Whole-blood glucose uptake (μmol · kg−1 · min−175.9 ± 3.8 18.7 ± 9.0* 21.5 ± 9.2* <0.001 
Free fatty acids (mmol/l) 0.41 ± 0.04 0.54 ± 0.06 0.56 ± 0.06 0.11 
Fasting leptin (pmol/l)     
    Male 2.8 ± 0.7 20.7 ± 3.0 31.9 ± 3.5* <0.001 
    Female 6.1 ± 0.8 42.2 ± 7.2* 53.2 ± 5.3* <0.001 
Total cholesterol (mmol/l) 4.62 ± 0.11 5.34 ± 0.12 5.60 ± 0.16* <0.001 
Total HDL (mmol/l) 1.62 ± 0.07 1.21 ± 0.04* 1.11 ± 0.04* <0.001 
Total LDL (mmol/l) 2.34 ± 0.10 3.22 ± 0.12* 3.30 ± 0.19* <0.001 
Triglycerides (mmol/l) 2.03 ± 0.06 2.01 ± 0.10 2.11 ± 0.07 0.63 
ADIPOL (μg/ml) 8.95 ± 0.55 3.38 ± 0.26* 3.48 ± 0.42* <0.001 
ADIPOM (μg/ml) 8.81 ± 3.43 3.51 ± 1.47* 3.82 ± 2.16* <0.001 
ADIPOA (μg/ml) 6.72 ± 0.65 6.25 ± 0.68 5.15 ± 0.90 0.32 
HMW adiponectin (μg/ml) 2.88 ± 0.32 2.80 ± 0.44 2.42 ± 0.63 0.78 

Data are means ± SD.

*

P < 0.001 for Bonferroni-corrected comparison with the group with NGT.

P < 0.01 for Bonferroni-corrected comparison with the group with NGT.

P < 0.05 for Bonferroni-corrected comparison with the group with NGT.

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