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Table 1—

Participant characteristics by racial and ethnic group

Clinical characteristicAllWhiteBlackHispanicAmerican IndianAsianP
n 3,819 2,117 752 609 174 167  
Age (years) 50.7 ± 10.6 51.9 ± 10.6 50.5 ± 10.1* 48.4 ± 10.1 44.5 ± 9.8 49.8 ± 10.1* <0.001 
Sex (female) 2,576 (67.5) 1,387 (65.5) 559 (74.3) 408 (67.0) 153 (87.9) 69 (41.3) <0.001 
Marital status (married/living together) 2,493 (65.3) 1,471 (69.5) 353 (46.9) 421 (69.1) 113 (64.9) 135 (80.8) <0.001 
Education (years)        
    13–16 1,821 (47.7) 1,048 (49.5) 335 (44.6) 260 (42.7) 92 (52.9) 86 (51.5) <0.001 
    ≥17 1,018 (26.7) 667 (31.5) 204 (27.1) 71 (11.7) 18 (10.3) 58 (34.7) <0.001 
Blood pressure (mmHg)        
    Systolic 123.9 ± 14.6 123.8 ± 14.1 127.0 ± 15.3 122.2 ± 14.3* 116.0 ± 12.4 124.8 ± 16.3 <0.001 
    Diastolic 78.4 ± 9.3 78.0 ± 9.1 79.8 ± 10.0 77.9 ± 8.7 75.3 ± 8.6 82.2 ± 9.7 <0.001 
BMI (kg/m233.9 ± 6.7 34.1 ± 6.8 35.2 ± 7.0 33.1 ± 5.7 33.6 ± 6.1 29.5 ± 5.3 <0.001 
    Men 32.0 ± 5.6 32.4 ± 5.9 32.6 ± 5.8 31.4 ± 4.8 31.2 ± 4.0 28.5 ± 3.8 <0.001 
    Women 34.9 ± 6.9 34.9 ± 7.1 36.2 ± 7.1 33.9 ± 5.9* 33.9 ± 6.3 30.9 ± 6.5 <0.001 
Waist circumference (cm)        
    Men 107.7 ± 13.5 110.2 ± 13.4 106.9 ± 13.9 104.5 ± 12.3 107.0 ± 11.0 97.1 ± 9.6 <0.001 
    Women 103.6 ± 14.9 104.1 ± 14.8 106.1 ± 16.3* 99.6 ± 12.6 105.2 ± 13.2 93.5 ± 14.0 <0.001 
Hematocrit (%) 41.1 ± 3.5 41.4 ± 3.3 39.6 ± 3.4 41.2 ± 3.7 41.5 ± 3.5 42.9 ± 3.7 <0.001 
Plasma glucose (mmol/l)        
    Fasting 5.9 ± 0.5 5.9 ± 0.5 6.0 ± 0.5 5.9 ± 0.5 5.6 ± 0.5 6.0 ± 0.4 <0.001 
    30 min 9.4 ± 1.4 9.5 ± 1.4 9.0 ± 1.2 9.6 ± 1.4 9.3 ± 1.3 9.8 ± 1.5 <0.001 
    120 min 9.1 ± 1.0 9.2 ± 0.9 9.1 ± 1.0 9.1 ± 1.0 9.1 ± 1.0 9.3 ± 0.9 0.211 
Glucose AUC 8.9 ± 0.8 8.9 ± 0.8 8.7 ± 0.8 9.0 ± 0.9 8.8 ± 0.8 9.1 ± 0.9 <0.001 
Fasting insulin (pmol/l) 184.5 ± 104.1 177.8 ± 100.4 189.7 ± 98.1 198.0 ± 113.9 207.2 ± 125.0 173.4 ± 107.8 <0.001 
CIR 0.6 ± 0.4 0.6 ± 0.4 0.7 ± 0.5 0.7 ± 0.5 0.9 ± 0.5 0.6 ± 0.4 <0.001 
Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) 7.0 ± 4.2 6.8 ± 4.0 7.3 ± 3.9* 7.5 ± 4.6 7.4 ± 4.7 6.7 ± 4.3 <0.001 
A1C (%) 5.91 ± 0.50 5.80 ± 0.44 6.19 ± 0.59 5.89 ± 0.46 5.96 ± 0.46 5.96 ± 0.45 <0.001 
Clinical characteristicAllWhiteBlackHispanicAmerican IndianAsianP
n 3,819 2,117 752 609 174 167  
Age (years) 50.7 ± 10.6 51.9 ± 10.6 50.5 ± 10.1* 48.4 ± 10.1 44.5 ± 9.8 49.8 ± 10.1* <0.001 
Sex (female) 2,576 (67.5) 1,387 (65.5) 559 (74.3) 408 (67.0) 153 (87.9) 69 (41.3) <0.001 
Marital status (married/living together) 2,493 (65.3) 1,471 (69.5) 353 (46.9) 421 (69.1) 113 (64.9) 135 (80.8) <0.001 
Education (years)        
    13–16 1,821 (47.7) 1,048 (49.5) 335 (44.6) 260 (42.7) 92 (52.9) 86 (51.5) <0.001 
    ≥17 1,018 (26.7) 667 (31.5) 204 (27.1) 71 (11.7) 18 (10.3) 58 (34.7) <0.001 
Blood pressure (mmHg)        
    Systolic 123.9 ± 14.6 123.8 ± 14.1 127.0 ± 15.3 122.2 ± 14.3* 116.0 ± 12.4 124.8 ± 16.3 <0.001 
    Diastolic 78.4 ± 9.3 78.0 ± 9.1 79.8 ± 10.0 77.9 ± 8.7 75.3 ± 8.6 82.2 ± 9.7 <0.001 
BMI (kg/m233.9 ± 6.7 34.1 ± 6.8 35.2 ± 7.0 33.1 ± 5.7 33.6 ± 6.1 29.5 ± 5.3 <0.001 
    Men 32.0 ± 5.6 32.4 ± 5.9 32.6 ± 5.8 31.4 ± 4.8 31.2 ± 4.0 28.5 ± 3.8 <0.001 
    Women 34.9 ± 6.9 34.9 ± 7.1 36.2 ± 7.1 33.9 ± 5.9* 33.9 ± 6.3 30.9 ± 6.5 <0.001 
Waist circumference (cm)        
    Men 107.7 ± 13.5 110.2 ± 13.4 106.9 ± 13.9 104.5 ± 12.3 107.0 ± 11.0 97.1 ± 9.6 <0.001 
    Women 103.6 ± 14.9 104.1 ± 14.8 106.1 ± 16.3* 99.6 ± 12.6 105.2 ± 13.2 93.5 ± 14.0 <0.001 
Hematocrit (%) 41.1 ± 3.5 41.4 ± 3.3 39.6 ± 3.4 41.2 ± 3.7 41.5 ± 3.5 42.9 ± 3.7 <0.001 
Plasma glucose (mmol/l)        
    Fasting 5.9 ± 0.5 5.9 ± 0.5 6.0 ± 0.5 5.9 ± 0.5 5.6 ± 0.5 6.0 ± 0.4 <0.001 
    30 min 9.4 ± 1.4 9.5 ± 1.4 9.0 ± 1.2 9.6 ± 1.4 9.3 ± 1.3 9.8 ± 1.5 <0.001 
    120 min 9.1 ± 1.0 9.2 ± 0.9 9.1 ± 1.0 9.1 ± 1.0 9.1 ± 1.0 9.3 ± 0.9 0.211 
Glucose AUC 8.9 ± 0.8 8.9 ± 0.8 8.7 ± 0.8 9.0 ± 0.9 8.8 ± 0.8 9.1 ± 0.9 <0.001 
Fasting insulin (pmol/l) 184.5 ± 104.1 177.8 ± 100.4 189.7 ± 98.1 198.0 ± 113.9 207.2 ± 125.0 173.4 ± 107.8 <0.001 
CIR 0.6 ± 0.4 0.6 ± 0.4 0.7 ± 0.5 0.7 ± 0.5 0.9 ± 0.5 0.6 ± 0.4 <0.001 
Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) 7.0 ± 4.2 6.8 ± 4.0 7.3 ± 3.9* 7.5 ± 4.6 7.4 ± 4.7 6.7 ± 4.3 <0.001 
A1C (%) 5.91 ± 0.50 5.80 ± 0.44 6.19 ± 0.59 5.89 ± 0.46 5.96 ± 0.46 5.96 ± 0.45 <0.001 

Data are means ± SD or n (%). Glucose AUC was calculated using the trapezoidal rule from 2-h OGTT values. We compared values for whites vs. those for other racial groups (significant P values [P for test of difference in means or percentages among the ethnic groups] are shown as

*

P < 0.05,

P < 0.001, and

P < 0.01). Step-down Bonferroni method (ref. 15) was used to adjust for multiple comparisons.

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