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Table 1—

Baseline variables by diabetes status stratified by sex

VariableWomen
Men
DiabetesNo diabetesPDiabetesNo diabetesP
n 97,090 198,525  100,322 202,875  
Age-group       
    66–75 years 73.6 72.7 <0.001 80.0 79.6 0.037 
    76–90 years 25.5 26.2  19.6 19.9  
    91+ years 0.9 1.0  0.4 0.4  
Income quintile       
    Lowest 26.2 20.5 <0.001 21.2 18.3 <0.001 
    Highest 13.7 19.3 <0.001 17.3 20.9 <0.001 
Comorbidity       
    Chronic unstable disease 44.9 32.6 <0.001 51.4 39.8 <0.001 
    Previous myocardial infarction 3.3 1.0 <0.001 4.5 2.1 <0.001 
    Previous stroke 1.5 0.6 <0.001 2.3 1.0 <0.001 
    Visual impairment 29.5 20.4 <0.001 22.8 14.6 <0.001 
    Neuropathy 3.7 1.7 <0.001 4.5 1.9 <0.001 
    Amputation 0.3 0.0 <0.001 0.6 0.0 <0.001 
Medications affecting BMD       
    Nitrates 18.7 8.5 <0.001 20.1 11.3 <0.001 
    Statins 13.6 7.7 <0.001 13.6 8.1 <0.001 
    Thiazides 20.7 17.1 <0.001 13.3 9.7 <0.001 
    Inhaled corticosteroids 7.3 5.8 <0.001 6.6 6.1 <0.001 
    Anticonvulsants 1.0 0.7 <0.001 1.0 0.6 <0.001 
    Estrogen 10.2 15.2 <0.001   <0.001 
    Medications affecting risk of falling* 59.5 47.1 <0.001 52.3 40.1 <0.001 
Health care utilization       
    Number physician visits/year       
        ≤3 8.5 25.2 <0.001 8.7 28.2 <0.001 
        4–6 18.0 28.4  18.5 28.1  
        7–10 30.0 25.7  29.7 23.7  
        ≥11 43.6 20.7  43.1 20.0  
    At least 1 BMD test 22.3 33.1 <0.001 3.6 4.7 <0.001 
VariableWomen
Men
DiabetesNo diabetesPDiabetesNo diabetesP
n 97,090 198,525  100,322 202,875  
Age-group       
    66–75 years 73.6 72.7 <0.001 80.0 79.6 0.037 
    76–90 years 25.5 26.2  19.6 19.9  
    91+ years 0.9 1.0  0.4 0.4  
Income quintile       
    Lowest 26.2 20.5 <0.001 21.2 18.3 <0.001 
    Highest 13.7 19.3 <0.001 17.3 20.9 <0.001 
Comorbidity       
    Chronic unstable disease 44.9 32.6 <0.001 51.4 39.8 <0.001 
    Previous myocardial infarction 3.3 1.0 <0.001 4.5 2.1 <0.001 
    Previous stroke 1.5 0.6 <0.001 2.3 1.0 <0.001 
    Visual impairment 29.5 20.4 <0.001 22.8 14.6 <0.001 
    Neuropathy 3.7 1.7 <0.001 4.5 1.9 <0.001 
    Amputation 0.3 0.0 <0.001 0.6 0.0 <0.001 
Medications affecting BMD       
    Nitrates 18.7 8.5 <0.001 20.1 11.3 <0.001 
    Statins 13.6 7.7 <0.001 13.6 8.1 <0.001 
    Thiazides 20.7 17.1 <0.001 13.3 9.7 <0.001 
    Inhaled corticosteroids 7.3 5.8 <0.001 6.6 6.1 <0.001 
    Anticonvulsants 1.0 0.7 <0.001 1.0 0.6 <0.001 
    Estrogen 10.2 15.2 <0.001   <0.001 
    Medications affecting risk of falling* 59.5 47.1 <0.001 52.3 40.1 <0.001 
Health care utilization       
    Number physician visits/year       
        ≤3 8.5 25.2 <0.001 8.7 28.2 <0.001 
        4–6 18.0 28.4  18.5 28.1  
        7–10 30.0 25.7  29.7 23.7  
        ≥11 43.6 20.7  43.1 20.0  
    At least 1 BMD test 22.3 33.1 <0.001 3.6 4.7 <0.001 

Data are %.

*

Medications include β-blockers, sedatives (benzodiazepines, barbiturates, and chloral hydrate), antidepressants (tricyclic and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors), antiparkinsonian drugs (levodopa, bromocriptine, pergolide, ropinirole, and pramipexole), and opiates (codeine and morphine).

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