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Table 2—

Hip fracture rates by diabetes status stratified by sex and results from univariate and multivariable Cox regression models

Hip fractures
HR (95% CI)
nIncidence/1,000 PYUnivariateMultivariable
Women     
    No diabetes 10,276 7.77 1.00 1.00 
    Diabetes 5,271 9.09 1.20 (1.16–1.24) 1.11 (1.08–1.15)* 
    Diabetes only     
        Incident 454 6.92 1.00 1.00 
        Prevalent 4,817 9.36 1.34 (1.22–1.48) 1.24 (1.13–1.37) 
        No insulin 4,217 8.68 1.00 1.00 
        Insulin 1,054 11.19 1.34 (1.25–1.43) 1.34 (1.26–1.44) 
Men     
    No diabetes 4,408 3.49 1.00 1.00 
    Diabetes 2,312 4.13 1.22 (1.16–1.28) 1.18 (1.12–1.24)§ 
    Diabetes only     
        Incident 193 2.92 1.00 1.00 
        Prevalent 2,119 4.29 1.44 (1.25–1.67) 1.37 (1.18–1.59) 
        No insulin 1,826 3.81 1.00 1.00 
        Insulin 486 5.98 1.64 (1.48–1.81) 1.65 (1.49–1.83) 
Hip fractures
HR (95% CI)
nIncidence/1,000 PYUnivariateMultivariable
Women     
    No diabetes 10,276 7.77 1.00 1.00 
    Diabetes 5,271 9.09 1.20 (1.16–1.24) 1.11 (1.08–1.15)* 
    Diabetes only     
        Incident 454 6.92 1.00 1.00 
        Prevalent 4,817 9.36 1.34 (1.22–1.48) 1.24 (1.13–1.37) 
        No insulin 4,217 8.68 1.00 1.00 
        Insulin 1,054 11.19 1.34 (1.25–1.43) 1.34 (1.26–1.44) 
Men     
    No diabetes 4,408 3.49 1.00 1.00 
    Diabetes 2,312 4.13 1.22 (1.16–1.28) 1.18 (1.12–1.24)§ 
    Diabetes only     
        Incident 193 2.92 1.00 1.00 
        Prevalent 2,119 4.29 1.44 (1.25–1.67) 1.37 (1.18–1.59) 
        No insulin 1,826 3.81 1.00 1.00 
        Insulin 486 5.98 1.64 (1.48–1.81) 1.65 (1.49–1.83) 

Medications that increase risk of falling include β-blockers, sedatives (benzodiazepines, barbiturates, and chloral hydrate), antidepressants (tricyclic and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors), antiparkinsonian drugs (levodopa, bromocriptine, pergolide, ropinirole, and pramipexole), and opiates (codeine and morphine).

*

Adjusted for age-group; chronic unstable disease; prior stroke; visual impairment; neuropathy; amputation; treatment with nitrates, statins, anticonvulsants, inhaled corticosteroids, thiazides, estrogen, and medications that increase risk of falling; and history of BMD test.

Adjusted for age-group; insulin treatment; chronic unstable disease; prior stroke; visual impairment; neuropathy; treatment with statins, thiazides, estrogen, and medications that increase risk of falling; and history of BMD test.

Adjusted for age-group; prevalent diabetes; chronic unstable disease; prior stroke; visual impairment; neuropathy; treatment with statins, thiazides, estrogen, and medications that increase risk of falling; and history of BMD test.

§

Adjusted for age-group; chronic unstable disease; prior stroke; visual impairment; neuropathy; amputation; treatment with nitrates, statins, anticonvulsants, inhaled corticosteroids, and medications that increase risk of fall; history of BMD test; and income quintile.

Adjusted for age-group; insulin treatment; chronic unstable disease; prior stroke; visual impairment; neuropathy; treatment with statins, thiazides, anticonvulsants, and medications that increase risk of falling; history of BMD test; and income quintile.

Adjusted for age-group; prevalent diabetes; chronic unstable disease; prior stroke; visual impairment; neuropathy; treatment with statins, thiazides, anticonvulsants, and medications that increase risk of falling; history of BMD test; and income quintile. P < 0.0001 for diabetes vs. no diabetes, insulin vs. no insulin; P < 0.001 for prevalent vs. incident diabetes. PY, person-years.

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