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Table 3—

Hazard ratio of Parkinson's disease according to history of type 2 diabetes among various subpopulations

Numbers of participants
Numbers of cases
Person-years
Hazard ratio (95% CI)
No diabetesDiabetesNo diabetesDiabetesNo diabetesDiabetesNo diabetesDiabetes
Age at baseline (years)         
    25–44 25,391 217 162 508,691 3,853 1.00 3.45 (1.27–9.37) 
    45–54 13,355 267 223 242,241 3,896 1.00 2.88 (1.47–5.66) 
    55–74 11,708 614 224 11 162,637 6,418 1.00 1.26 (0.68–2.32) 
Smoking         
    Never 27,466 574 373 13 519,144 7,583 1.00 1.70 (0.98–2.98) 
    Ever or current 22,988 524 236 11 394,425 6,584 1.00 1.94 (1.05–5.59) 
Numbers of participants
Numbers of cases
Person-years
Hazard ratio (95% CI)
No diabetesDiabetesNo diabetesDiabetesNo diabetesDiabetesNo diabetesDiabetes
Age at baseline (years)         
    25–44 25,391 217 162 508,691 3,853 1.00 3.45 (1.27–9.37) 
    45–54 13,355 267 223 242,241 3,896 1.00 2.88 (1.47–5.66) 
    55–74 11,708 614 224 11 162,637 6,418 1.00 1.26 (0.68–2.32) 
Smoking         
    Never 27,466 574 373 13 519,144 7,583 1.00 1.70 (0.98–2.98) 
    Ever or current 22,988 524 236 11 394,425 6,584 1.00 1.94 (1.05–5.59) 

Adjusted for age, sex, study year, BMI (<23, 23–24.9, 25–26.9, 27–29.9, and ≥30 kg/m2), systolic blood pressure, cholesterol, education, leisure-time physical activity (low, moderate, and high), cigarette smoking (never, past, and current smoking of 1–9, 10–19, or ≥20 cigarettes/day; except in smoking status analysis), coffee consumption (none, 1–2, 3–4, 5–6, and ≥7 cups/day), tea consumption (none, 1–2, and ≥3 cups/day), and alcohol consumption (yes and no).

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