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Table 1—

Characteristics of GDM patients compared with control subjects and univariate HRs for subsequent development of type 2 diabetes among the GDM group

CovariateControl subjects (n = 783)
GDM patients (n = 5,470)
BaselineBaselineHR*P
Race     
    Caucasian 702 (89.6) 3,901 (71.3)  
    Asian 81 (10.4) 1,559 (28.5) 1.75 (1.42–2.16) <0.001 
    Aboriginal — 10 (0.2) 3.26 (0.81–13.1)  
Height (cm) 162 ± 7.0 160 ± 6.5 1.0 (0.99–1.02) 0.82 
Age (years) 30.5 ± 4.6 30.7 ± 5.1 1.03 (1.01–1.05) 0.002 
Parity 3 (2–3) 2 (2–3) 1.02 (0.95–1.10) 0.58 
BMI (kg/m225.8 ± 3.6 26.9 ± 4.9 1.11 (1.09–1.13) <0.001 
Birth weight (g) 3,420 ± 501 3,269 ± 555 1.00 (1.00–1.00) 0.07 
BwtGC 48 ± 27.9 47 ± 28.7 1.01 (1.00–1.01) <0.001 
Gestational age (weeks) 39.2 ± 3.4 38.4 ± 2.7 0.94 (0.92–0.96) <0.001 
Insulin use in pregnancy — 684 (12.5) 8.9 (7.1–11.1) <0.001 
Family history of diabetes 131 (17) 1,313 (24) 1.4 (1.1–1.7) 0.002 
FBG (mmol) 4.5 ± 0.6 5.2 ± 1.1 1.22 (1.19–1.25) <0.001 
1-h blood glucose (mmol) 7.4 ± 1.2 10.1 ± 1.4 1.53 (1.48–1.58) <0.001 
2-h blood glucose (mmol) 5.7 ± 1.0 8.1 ± 1.3 1.35 (1.32–1.39) <0.001 
CovariateControl subjects (n = 783)
GDM patients (n = 5,470)
BaselineBaselineHR*P
Race     
    Caucasian 702 (89.6) 3,901 (71.3)  
    Asian 81 (10.4) 1,559 (28.5) 1.75 (1.42–2.16) <0.001 
    Aboriginal — 10 (0.2) 3.26 (0.81–13.1)  
Height (cm) 162 ± 7.0 160 ± 6.5 1.0 (0.99–1.02) 0.82 
Age (years) 30.5 ± 4.6 30.7 ± 5.1 1.03 (1.01–1.05) 0.002 
Parity 3 (2–3) 2 (2–3) 1.02 (0.95–1.10) 0.58 
BMI (kg/m225.8 ± 3.6 26.9 ± 4.9 1.11 (1.09–1.13) <0.001 
Birth weight (g) 3,420 ± 501 3,269 ± 555 1.00 (1.00–1.00) 0.07 
BwtGC 48 ± 27.9 47 ± 28.7 1.01 (1.00–1.01) <0.001 
Gestational age (weeks) 39.2 ± 3.4 38.4 ± 2.7 0.94 (0.92–0.96) <0.001 
Insulin use in pregnancy — 684 (12.5) 8.9 (7.1–11.1) <0.001 
Family history of diabetes 131 (17) 1,313 (24) 1.4 (1.1–1.7) 0.002 
FBG (mmol) 4.5 ± 0.6 5.2 ± 1.1 1.22 (1.19–1.25) <0.001 
1-h blood glucose (mmol) 7.4 ± 1.2 10.1 ± 1.4 1.53 (1.48–1.58) <0.001 
2-h blood glucose (mmol) 5.7 ± 1.0 8.1 ± 1.3 1.35 (1.32–1.39) <0.001 

Data are means ± SD, median (25th–75th percentile), or n (%).

*

HR (95% CI HR).

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