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Table 2—

Risk factor levels (aggregated across follow-up) of the individual components of the metabolic syndrome, health behaviors, and other sample characteristics according to cumulative prevalence over average 15 years of the metabolic syndrome, defined via the WHO, the ATP III, and the IDF clinical criteria

WHO
ATP III
IDF
NoYestNoYestNoYest
n 391 41  295 137  268 164  
Risk factor levels          
    Fasting glucose (mg/dl) 86.4 ± 8.1 115.2 ± 27.2 6.8 84.6 ± 5.8 98.2 ± 20.9 7.3 84.5 ± 5.6 96.6 ± 19.6 7.8 
    Waist circumference (cm) 79.1 ± 10.0 96.9 ± 13.8 8.1 75.8 ± 7.6 91.6 ± 11.5 14.6 75.5 ± 7.8 89.6 ± 11.6 13.9 
    Waist-to-hip ratio 0.78 ± 0.05 0.83 ± 0.06 6.9 0.76 ± 0.05 0.82 ± 0.05 13.4 0.75 ± 0.05 0.82 ± 0.05 13.2 
    BMI (kg/m225.8 ± 4.2 32.9 ± 6.4 6.9 24.6 ± 3.4 30.4 ± 5.4 11.5 24.5 ± 3.4 29.6 ± 5.4 10.9 
    Triglycerides (mg/dl) 102.7 ± 49.7 157.08 ± 60.2 6.5 35.3 ± 2.1 62.9 ± 5.4 10.0 86.6 ± 32.1 142.7 ± 61.7 10.8 
    HDL cholesterol (mg/dl) 61.6 ± 13.9 49.5 ± 11.0 −5.4 65.2 ± 13.1 50.2 ± 10.1 −13.0 65.4 ± 12.9 52.3 ± 12.0 −10.9 
    SBP (mmHg) 114.6 ± 13.8 122.6 ± 10.03 4.7 112.2 ± 13.3 122.1 ± 12.1 7.4 111.5 ± 13.2 121.5 ± 12.1 10.5 
    DBP (mmHg) 71.8 ± 7.6 73.6 ± 7.4 1.5 70.8 ± 7.7 74.5 ± 6.8 4.9 70.5 ± 7.4 74.3 ± 7.3 5.2 
Health behaviors          
    Physical activity (kcal/week) 1,632 ± 1,471 1,154 ± 913 −3.0 1,664 ± 1,435 1,420 ± 1,425 −1.7 1,640 ± 1,365 1,499 ± 1,539 −1.0 
    Alcohol consumption (g/week) 11.8 ± 10.6 8.2 ± 9.7 −2.0 12.3 ± 10.6 9.6 ± 10.5 −2.5 11.8 ± 10.2 10.8 ± 11.2 −1.0 
    Smoking status: yes 115 (29.4) 13 (31.7) 0.1 (1) 82 (27.8) 46 (33.6) 1.5 (1) 74 (27.6) 54 (32.9) 1.4 (1) 
Other characteristics          
    Age (years) 49.1 ± 1.6 48.6 ± 1.6 −1.8 49.0 ± 1.5 49.1 ± 1.7 1.1 48.9 ± 1.5 49.1 ± 1.6 1.3 
    HRT: yes 45 (11.5) 4 (9.8) 0.1 (1) 32 (10.8) 17 (12.4) 0.2 (1) 25 (9.3) 24 (14.6) 2.9 (1) 
    Level of education: high school 20 (48.8) 102 (26.1) 11.6 (3) 73 (24.7) 49 (35.8) 9.7 (3) 63 (23.5) 59 (36.0) 10.2 (3) 
WHO
ATP III
IDF
NoYestNoYestNoYest
n 391 41  295 137  268 164  
Risk factor levels          
    Fasting glucose (mg/dl) 86.4 ± 8.1 115.2 ± 27.2 6.8 84.6 ± 5.8 98.2 ± 20.9 7.3 84.5 ± 5.6 96.6 ± 19.6 7.8 
    Waist circumference (cm) 79.1 ± 10.0 96.9 ± 13.8 8.1 75.8 ± 7.6 91.6 ± 11.5 14.6 75.5 ± 7.8 89.6 ± 11.6 13.9 
    Waist-to-hip ratio 0.78 ± 0.05 0.83 ± 0.06 6.9 0.76 ± 0.05 0.82 ± 0.05 13.4 0.75 ± 0.05 0.82 ± 0.05 13.2 
    BMI (kg/m225.8 ± 4.2 32.9 ± 6.4 6.9 24.6 ± 3.4 30.4 ± 5.4 11.5 24.5 ± 3.4 29.6 ± 5.4 10.9 
    Triglycerides (mg/dl) 102.7 ± 49.7 157.08 ± 60.2 6.5 35.3 ± 2.1 62.9 ± 5.4 10.0 86.6 ± 32.1 142.7 ± 61.7 10.8 
    HDL cholesterol (mg/dl) 61.6 ± 13.9 49.5 ± 11.0 −5.4 65.2 ± 13.1 50.2 ± 10.1 −13.0 65.4 ± 12.9 52.3 ± 12.0 −10.9 
    SBP (mmHg) 114.6 ± 13.8 122.6 ± 10.03 4.7 112.2 ± 13.3 122.1 ± 12.1 7.4 111.5 ± 13.2 121.5 ± 12.1 10.5 
    DBP (mmHg) 71.8 ± 7.6 73.6 ± 7.4 1.5 70.8 ± 7.7 74.5 ± 6.8 4.9 70.5 ± 7.4 74.3 ± 7.3 5.2 
Health behaviors          
    Physical activity (kcal/week) 1,632 ± 1,471 1,154 ± 913 −3.0 1,664 ± 1,435 1,420 ± 1,425 −1.7 1,640 ± 1,365 1,499 ± 1,539 −1.0 
    Alcohol consumption (g/week) 11.8 ± 10.6 8.2 ± 9.7 −2.0 12.3 ± 10.6 9.6 ± 10.5 −2.5 11.8 ± 10.2 10.8 ± 11.2 −1.0 
    Smoking status: yes 115 (29.4) 13 (31.7) 0.1 (1) 82 (27.8) 46 (33.6) 1.5 (1) 74 (27.6) 54 (32.9) 1.4 (1) 
Other characteristics          
    Age (years) 49.1 ± 1.6 48.6 ± 1.6 −1.8 49.0 ± 1.5 49.1 ± 1.7 1.1 48.9 ± 1.5 49.1 ± 1.6 1.3 
    HRT: yes 45 (11.5) 4 (9.8) 0.1 (1) 32 (10.8) 17 (12.4) 0.2 (1) 25 (9.3) 24 (14.6) 2.9 (1) 
    Level of education: high school 20 (48.8) 102 (26.1) 11.6 (3) 73 (24.7) 49 (35.8) 9.7 (3) 63 (23.5) 59 (36.0) 10.2 (3) 

Data are means ± SD or n (%). t values represent differences between the groups in independent sample t tests: t > 1.96, P < 0.05; t > 2.56, P < 0.01; t > 3.29, P < 0.001; differences between the groups in smoking, hormone replacement therapy and level of education are reported as χ2statistics (df); none of the differences between the groups in smoking or in hormone replacement therapy are significant, P > 0.09, whereas all the differences between the groups in level of education are significant, P < 0.02. DBP, diastolic blood pressure; SBP, systolic blood pressure.

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